We thank Canada’s Polar Continental Shelf Project, Resolute Bay, Nunavut, for logistical support for the study. Additional support was provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and the Polar Climate Stability Network of the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences (CFCAS). David Burgess, David Lewis, Douglas Mair, and Faron Anslow provided sterling field assistance for this study. Two anonymous reviews improved this contribution.
Arnold, N. S., I. C. Willis, M. J. Sharp, K. S. Richards, and M. J. Lawson, 1996: A distributed surface energy-balance model for a small valley glacier. I. Development and testing for Haut Glacier d’Arolla, Valais, Switzerland. J. Glaciol., 42 , 77–89.
Bøggild, C., N. Reeh, and H. Oerter, 1994: Modelling ablation and mass-balance sensitivity to climate change of Storstrømmen, northeast Greenland. Global Planet. Change, 9 , 79–90.
Box, J. E., and Coauthors, 2006: Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance variability (1988–2004) from calibrated polar MM5 output. J. Climate, 19 , 2783–2800.
Braithwaite, R. J., 1995: Positive degree-day factors for ablation on the Greenland ice sheet studied by energy-balance modelling. J. Glaciol., 41 , 153–160.
Braithwaite, R. J., and O. B. Olesen, 1989: Calculation of glacier ablation from air temperature, West Greenland. Glacier Fluctuations and Climatic Change, J. Oerlemans, Ed., Kluwer Academic, 219–233.
Braithwaite, R. J., and Y. Zhang, 2000: Sensitivity of mass balance of five Swiss glaciers to temperature changes assessed by tuning a degree-day model. J. Glaciol., 46 , 7–14.
Cazorzi, F., and G. Dalla Fontana, 1996: Snowmelt modelling by combining temperature and a distributed radiation index. J. Hydrol., 181 , 169–187.
Cline, D. W., 1997: Snow surface energy exchanges and snowmelt at a continental, midlatitude Alpine site. Water Resour. Res., 33 , 689–701.
Fabre, A., C. Ritz, and G. Ramstein, 1996: Modelling of Last Glacial Maximum ice sheets using different accumulation parameterizations. Ann. Glaciol., 24 , 223–229.
Flowers, G. E., S. J. Marshall, H. Björnsson, and G. K. C. Clarke, 2005: Sensitivity of Vatnajökull ice cap hydrology and dynamics to climate warming over the next 2 centuries. J. Geophys. Res., 110 , F02011. doi:10.1029/2004JF000200.
Glover, R. W., 1999: Influence of spatial resolution and treatment of orography on GCM estimates of the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. J. Climate, 12 , 551–563.
Hanna, E., P. Huybrechts, I. Janssens, J. Cappelen, K. Steffen, and A. Stephens, 2005: Runoff and mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet: 1958–2003. J. Geophys. Res., 110 , D13108. doi:10.1029/2004JD005641.
Hock, R., 1999: A distributed temperature-index ice- and snowmelt model including potential direct solar radiation. J. Glaciol., 45 , 101–111.
Huybrechts, P., 2002: Sea-level changes at the LGM from ice-dynamic reconstructions of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets during the glacial cycles. Quat. Sci. Rev., 21 , 203–231.
Huybrechts, P., A. Letréguilly, and N. Reeh, 1991: The Greenland ice sheet and greenhouse warming. Global Planet. Change, 89 , 399–412.
Jóhannesson, T., O. Sigurdsson, T. Laumann, and M. Kennett, 1995: Degree-day glacier mass-balance modelling with application to glaciers in Iceland, Norway, and Greenland. J. Glaciol., 41 , 345–358.
Koerner, R. M., 1979: Accumulation, ablation, and oxygen isotope variations on the Queen Elizabeth Islands ice caps, Canada. J. Glaciol., 22 , 25–41.
Koerner, R. M., 2002: Glaciers of the high Arctic islands. Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World: Glaciers of North America, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-J, R. S. Jr. and J. G. Ferrigno, Eds., J111–J146.
Lefebre, F., H. Gallée, J-P. van Ypersele, and P. Huybrechts, 2002: Modelling of large-scale melt parameters with a regional climate model in south Greenland during the 1991 melt season. Ann. Glaciol., 35 , 391–397.
Letréguilly, A., N. Reeh, and P. Huybrechts, 1991: The Greenland Ice Sheet through the last glacial–interglacial cycle. Global Planet. Change, 90 , 385–394.
Marshall, S. J., M. J. Sharp, D. O. Burgess, and F. S. Anslow, 2007: Near-surface-temperature lapse rates on the Prince of Wales Icefield, Ellesmere Island, Canada: Implications for regional downscaling of temperature. Int. J. Climatol., 27 , 385–398.
Pollard, D., and S. Thompson, 1997: Driving a high-resolution dynamic ice-sheet model with GCM climate: Ice-sheet initiation at 116,000 BP. Ann. Glaciol., 25 , 296–304.
Purves, R. S., and N. R. J. Hulton, 2000: A climatic-scale precipitation model compared with the UKCIP baseline climate. Int. J. Climatol., 20 , 1809–1821.
Radić, V., and R. Hock, 2006: Modelling future glacier mass balance and volume changes using ERA-40 and climate models: A sensitivity study at Storglaciären, Sweden. J. Geophys. Res., 111 , F03003. doi:10.1029/2005JF000440.
Wang, L., M. J. Sharp, B. Rivard, S. J. Marshall, and D. O. Burgess, 2005: Melt season duration on Canadian Arctic ice caps, 2000–2004. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 , L19502. doi:10.1029/2005GL023962.
Wang, L., M. Sharp, B. Rivard, and K. Steffen, 2007: Melt duration and ice layer formation on the Greenland ice sheet, 2000–2004. J. Geophys. Res., 112 , F04013. doi:10.1029/2007JF000760.