The authors thank Drs. Matt Wheeler and Paul Roundy for their valuable comments and suggestions. This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant CATER 2007-4208 and the NOAA Climate Program Office under the Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) program. KH Seo would like to acknowledge the support from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI).
Carvalho, L. M. V., , C. Jones, , and B. Liebmann, 2004: The South Atlantic convergence zone: Intensity, form, persistence, and relationships with intraseasonal to interannual activity and extreme rainfall. J. Climate, 17 , 88–108.
Donald, A., , H. Meinke, , B. Power, , Ade H. N. Maia, , M. C. Wheeler, , N. White, , R. C. Stone, , and J. Ribbe, 2006: Near-global impact of the Madden-Julian Oscillation on rainfall. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 , L09704. doi:10.1029/2005GL025155.
Ferranti, L., , T. N. Palmer, , F. Molteni, , and E. Klinker, 1990: Tropical–extratropical interaction associated with the 30–60 day oscillation and its impact on medium and extended range prediction. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 , 2177–2199.
Flatau, M., , P. J. Flatau, , P. Phoebus, , and P. P. Niiler, 1997: The feedback between equatorial convection and local radiative and evaporative processes: The implications for intraseasonal oscillations. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 , 2373–2386.
Fu, X., , B. Wang, , T. Li, , and J. P. McCreary, 2003: Coupling between northward-propagating, intraseasonal oscillations and sea surface temperature in the Indian Ocean. J. Atmos. Sci., 60 , 1733–1753.
Hendon, H. H., , and B. Liebmann, 1990: The intraseasonal (30–50 day) oscillation of the Australian summer monsoon. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 , 2909–2923.
Hendon, H. H., , and M. L. Salby, 1996: Planetary-scale circulations forced by intraseasonal variations of observed convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 1751–1758.
Higgins, R. W., , and W. Shi, 2001: Intercomparison of the principal modes of interannual and intraseasonal variability of the North American monsoon system. J. Climate, 14 , 403–417.
Higgins, R. W., , J-K. E. Schemm, , W. Shi, , and A. Leetmaa, 2000: Extreme precipitation events in the western United States related to tropical forcing. J. Climate, 13 , 793–820.
Hoffman, R. N., , Z. Liu, , J-F. Louis, , and C. Grassotti, 1995: Distortion representation of forecast errors. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123 , 2758–2770.
Hsu, H-H., , and C-H. Weng, 2001: Northwestward propagation of the intraseasonal oscillation in the western North Pacific during the boreal summer: Structure and mechanism. J. Climate, 14 , 3834–3850.
Inness, P. M., , and J. M. Slingo, 2006: The interaction of the Madden-Julian Oscillation with the maritime continent in a GCM. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 132 , 1645–1667.
Jones, C., , D. E. Waliser, , J-K. E. Schemm, , and K-M. Lau, 2000: Prediction skill of the Madden-Julian oscillation in dynamical extended range forecasts. Climate Dyn., 16 , 273–289.
Jones, C., , L. M. V. Carvalho, , R. W. Higgins, , D. E. Waliser, , and J-K. E. Schemm, 2004: A statistical forecast model of tropical intraseasonal convective anomalies. J. Climate, 17 , 2078–2095.
Kanamitsu, M., , W. Ebisuzaki, , J. Woollen, , S-K. Yang, , J. J. Hnilo, , M. Fiorino, , and G. L. Potter, 2002: NCEP–DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83 , 1631–1643.
Kemball-Cook, S., , and B. Wang, 2001: Equatorial waves and air–sea interaction in the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation. J. Climate, 14 , 2923–2942.
Kemball-Cook, S., , B. Wang, , and X. Fu, 2002: Simulation of the intraseasonal oscillation in the ECHAM-4 model: Impact of coupling with an ocean model. J. Atmos. Sci., 59 , 1433–1453.
Kessler, W., , and R. Kleeman, 2000: Rectification of the Madden–Julian oscillation into the ENSO cycle. J. Climate, 13 , 3560–3575.
Kousky, V. E., , and M. T. Kayano, 1994: Principal modes of outgoing longwave radiation and 250-mb circulation for the South American sector. J. Climate, 7 , 1131–1143.
Krishnamurti, T. N., , D. K. Oosterhof, , and A. V. Mehta, 1988: Air–sea interaction on the time scale of 30 to 50 days. J. Atmos. Sci., 45 , 1304–1322.
Lau, K-M., , and P. H. Chan, 1986: Aspects of the 40–50 day oscillation during the northern summer as inferred from outgoing longwave radiation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114 , 1354–1367.
Liebmann, B., , and C. A. Smith, 1996: Description of a complete (interpolated) outgoing longwave radiation dataset. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 1275–1277.
Lin, J-L., and Coauthors, 2006: Tropical intraseasonal variability in 14 IPCC AR4 climate models. Part I: Convective signals. J. Climate, 19 , 2665–2690.
Lo, F., , and H. H. Hendon, 2000: Empirical extended-range prediction of the Madden–Julian oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 2528–2543.
Madden, R. A., , and P. R. Julian, 1994: Observations of the 40–50-day tropical oscillation—A review. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122 , 814–837.
Maharaj, E. A., , and M. C. Wheeler, 2005: Forecasting an index of the Madden-Julian oscillation. Int. J. Climatol., 25 , 1611–1618.
Maloney, E. D., , and D. L. Hartmann, 2000: Modulation of eastern North Pacific hurricanes by the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Climate, 13 , 1451–1460.
Matthews, A. J., , B. J. Hoskins, , J. Slingo, , and M. Blackburn, 1996: Development of convection along the SPCZ within a Madden-Julian oscillation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 122 , 1473–1498.
Matthews, A. J., , B. J. Hoskins, , and M. Masutani, 2004: The global response to tropical heating in the Madden-Julian oscillation during the northern winter. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130 , 1911–2011.
Mo, K. C., , and W. R. Higgins, 1998: Tropical convection and precipitation regimes in the western United States. J. Climate, 11 , 2402–2423.
Reynolds, R. W., , N. A. Rayner, , T. M. Smith, , D. C. Stokes, , and W. Wang, 2002: An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate. J. Climate, 15 , 1609–1625.
Roundy, P. E., , C. J. Schreck III, , and M. A. Janiga, 2009: Contributions of convectively coupled equatorial Rossby waves and Kelvin waves to the real-time multivariate MJO indices. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137 , 363–372.
Seo, K-H., , and Y. Xue, 2005: MJO–related oceanic Kelvin waves and the ENSO cycle: A study with the NCEP Global Ocean Data Assimilation System. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 , L07712. doi:10.1029/2005GL022511.
Seo, K-H., , J-K. E. Schemm, , C. Jones, , and S. Moorthi, 2005: Forecast skill of the tropical intraseasonal oscillation in the NCEP GFS dynamical extended range forecasts. Climate Dyn., 25 , 265–284.
Seo, K-H., , J-K. E. Schemm, , W. Wang, , and A. Kumar, 2007: The boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation simulated in the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS): The effect of sea surface temperature. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135 , 1807–1827.
Shinoda, T., , H. H. Hendon, , and J. Glick, 1998: Intraseasonal variability of surface fluxes and sea surface temperature in the tropical western Pacific and Indian Oceans. J. Climate, 11 , 1685–1702.
Waliser, D. E., , C. Jones, , J-K. E. Schemm, , and N. E. Graham, 1999: A statistical extended-range tropical forecast model based on the slow evolution of the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Climate, 12 , 1918–1939.
Waliser, D. E., , K. M. Lau, , W. Stern, , and C. Jones, 2003: Potential predictability of the Madden–Julian oscillation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84 , 33–50.
Wang, B., , and X. Xie, 1998: Coupled modes of the warm pool climate system. Part I: The role of air–sea interaction in maintaining Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Climate, 11 , 2116–2135.
Wang, W., , S. Saha, , H-L. Pan, , S. Nadiga, , and G. White, 2005: Simulation of ENSO in the new NCEP Coupled Forecast System Model (CFS03). Mon. Wea. Rev., 133 , 1574–1593.
Wheeler, M., , and G. N. Kiladis, 1999: Convectively coupled equatorial waves: Analysis of clouds and temperature in the wavenumber–frequency domain. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 374–399.
Wheeler, M., , and K. M. Weickmann, 2001: Real-time monitoring and prediction of modes of coherent synoptic to intraseasonal tropical variability. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 , 2677–2694.
Wheeler, M., , and H. H. Hendon, 2004: An all-season real-time multivariate MJO index: Development of an index for monitoring and prediction. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 1917–1932.
Whitaker, J. S., , and K. M. Weickmann, 2001: Subseasonal variations of tropical convection and week-2 prediction of wintertime western North American rainfall. J. Climate, 14 , 3279–3288.
Woolnough, S. J., , J. M. Slingo, , and B. J. Hoskins, 2000: The relationship between convection and sea surface temperature on intraseasonal timescales. J. Climate, 13 , 2086–2104.
Yasunari, T., 1980: A quasi-stationary appearance of the 30-40 day period in the cloudiness fluctuations during the summer monsoon over India. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 58 , 225–229.
Zhang, C., 1996: Atmospheric intraseasonal variability at the surface in the tropical western Pacific Ocean. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 739–758.
Zhang, C., , and J. Gottschalck, 2002: SST anomalies of ENSO and the Madden–Julian oscillation in the equatorial Pacific. J. Climate, 15 , 2429–2445.