• Alexander, M. A., 1990: Simulation of the response of the North Pacific Ocean to the anomalous atmospheric circulation associated with El Niño. Climate Dyn., 5 , 5365.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alexander, M. A., 1992: Midlatitude atmosphere–ocean interaction during El Niño. Part I: The North Pacific Ocean. J. Climate, 5 , 944958.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alexander, M. A., , and C. Deser, 1995: A mechanism for the recurrence of wintertime midlatitude SST anomalies. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25 , 122137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alexander, M. A., , and J. D. Scott, 2008: The role of Ekman ocean heat transport in the Northern Hemisphere response to ENSO. J. Climate, 21 , 56885707.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alexander, M. A., , C. Deser, , and M. S. Timlin, 1999: The reemergence of SST anomalies in the North Pacific Ocean. J. Climate, 12 , 24192433.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alexander, M. A., , M. S. Timlin, , and J. D. Scott, 2001: Winter-to-winter recurrence of sea surface temperature, salinity, and mixed layer depth anomalies. Prog. Oceanogr., 49 , 4161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alexander, M. A., , I. Bladé, , M. Newman, , J. R. Lanzante, , N-C. Lau, , and J. D. Scott, 2002: The atmospheric bridge: The influence of ENSO teleconnections on air–sea interaction over the global oceans. J. Climate, 15 , 22052231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alexander, M. A., , N-C. Lau, , and J. D. Scott, 2004: Broadening the atmospheric bridge paradigm: ENSO teleconnections to the North Pacific in summer and to the tropical west Pacific-Indian Oceans over the seasonal cycle. Earth’s Climate: The Ocean–Atmosphere Interaction, Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 147, Amer. Geophys. Union, 85–104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alexander, M. A., and Coauthors, 2006: Extratropical atmosphere–ocean variability in CCSM3. J. Climate, 19 , 24962525.

  • Alexander, M. A., , L. Matrosova, , C. Penland, , J. D. Scott, , and P. Chang, 2008: Forecasting Pacific SSTs: Linear inverse model predictions of the PDO. J. Climate, 21 , 385402.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Álvarez-García, F., , M. Latif, , and A. Biastoch, 2008: On multidecadal and quasi-decadal North Atlantic variability. J. Climate, 21 , 34333452.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Annamalai, H., , H. Okajima, , and M. Watanabe, 2007: Possible impact of the Indian Ocean SST on the Northern Hemisphere circulation during El Niño. J. Climate, 20 , 31643189.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bader, D. C., , C. Covey, , W. J. Gutowski Jr., , I. M. Held, , K. E. Kunkel, , R. L. Miller, , R. T. Tokmakian, , and M. H. Zhang, 2008: Climate models: An assessment of strengths and limitations. U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Department of Energy, 124 pp. [Available online at http://www.climatescience.gov/Library/sap/sap3-1/final-report/sap3-1-final-all.pdf].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bader, J., , and M. Latif, 2003: The impact of decadal-scale Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomalies on Sahelian rainfall and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 , 2169. doi:10.1029/2003GL018426.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barlow, M., , S. Nigam, , and E. H. Berbery, 2001: ENSO, Pacific decadal variability, and U.S. summertime precipitation, drought, and stream flow. J. Climate, 14 , 21052128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Belkin, I., , R. Krishfield, , and S. Honjo, 2002: Decadal variability of the North Pacific polar front: Subsurface warming versus surface cooling. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 , 1351. doi:10.1029/2001GL013806.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bellucci, A., , S. Gualdi, , E. Scoccimarro, , and A. Navarra, 2008: NAO–ocean circulation interactions in a coupled general circulation model. Climate Dyn., 31 , 759777.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bengtsson, L., , K. I. Hodges, , and E. Roeckner, 2006: Storm tracks and climate change. J. Climate, 19 , 35183543.

  • Berloff, P., , A. M. Hogg, , and W. Dewar, 2007: The turbulent oscillator: A mechanism of low-frequency variability of the wind-driven ocean gyres. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37 , 23632386.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bhatt, U. S., , M. A. Alexander, , D. S. Battisti, , D. D. Houghton, , and L. M. Keller, 1998: Atmosphere–ocean interaction in the North Atlantic: Near-surface climate variability. J. Climate, 11 , 16151632.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bjerknes, J., 1969: Atlantic air–sea interaction. Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 10, Academic Press, 1–82.

  • Bond, N. A., , and M. F. Cronin, 2008: Regional weather patterns during anomalous air–sea fluxes at the Kuroshio Extension Observatory (KEO). J. Climate, 21 , 16801697.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Böning, C. W., , M. Scheinert, , J. Dengg, , A. Biastoch, , and A. Funk, 2006: Decadal variability of subpolar gyre transport and its reverberation in the North Atlantic overturning. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 , L21S01. doi:10.1029/2006GL026906.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bony, S., and Coauthors, 2006: How well do we understand and evaluate climate change feedback processes? J. Climate, 19 , 34453482.

  • Bryan, F. O., , M. W. Hecht, , and R. D. Smith, 2007: Resolution convergence and sensitivity studies with North Atlantic circulation models. Part I: The western boundary current system. Ocean Modell., 16 , 141159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carton, J. A., , and B. S. Giese, 2008: A reanalysis of ocean climate using Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA). Mon. Wea. Rev., 136 , 29993017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cassou, C., , and L. Terray, 2001: Oceanic forcing of the wintertime low frequency atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic European sector: A study with the ARPEGE model. J. Climate, 14 , 42664291.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cassou, C., , C. Deser, , L. Terray, , J. W. Hurrell, , and M. Drévillon, 2004: Summer sea surface temperature conditions in the North Atlantic and their impact upon the atmospheric circulation in early winter. J. Climate, 17 , 33493363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cassou, C., , C. Deser, , and M. A. Alexander, 2007: Investigating the impact of reemerging sea surface temperature anomalies on the winter atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic. J. Climate, 20 , 35103526.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cayan, D. R., 1992: Latent and sensible heat flux anomalies over the northern oceans: Driving the sea surface temperature. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22 , 859881.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ceballos, L. I., , E. Di Lorenzo, , C. D. Hoyos, , N. Schneider, , and B. Taguchi, 2009: North Pacific Gyre Oscillation synchronizes climate fluctuations in the eastern and western boundary systems. J. Climate, 22 , 51635174.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, E. K. M., , S. Lee, , and K. L. Swanson, 2002: Storm track dynamics. J. Climate, 15 , 21632183.

  • Chelton, D. B., , and M. G. Schlax, 1996: Global observations of oceanic Rossby waves. Science, 272 , 234238.

  • Ciasto, L. M., , and D. W. J. Thompson, 2004: North Atlantic atmosphere–ocean interaction on intraseasonal time scales. J. Climate, 17 , 16171621.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Colin de Verdière, A., , and T. Huck, 1999: Baroclinic instability: An oceanic wavemaker for interdecadal variability. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29 , 893910.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collins, M., , S. F. B. Tett, , and C. Cooper, 2001: The internal climate variability of HadCM3, a version of the Hadley Centre coupled model without flux adjustments. Climate Dyn., 17 , 6181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Czaja, A., , and C. Frankignoul, 1999: Influence of the North Atlantic SST on the atmospheric circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 , 29692972.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Czaja, A., , and C. Frankignoul, 2002: Observed impact of Atlantic SST anomalies on the North Atlantic oscillation. J. Climate, 15 , 606623.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dawe, J. T., , and L. Thompson, 2005: Viscosity-dependent internal variability in a model of the North Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35 , 747756.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dawe, J. T., , and L. Thompson, 2007: PDO-related heat and temperature budget changes in a model of the North Pacific. J. Climate, 20 , 20922108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Coëtlogon, G., , and C. Frankignoul, 2003: The persistence of winter sea surface temperature in the North Atlantic. J. Climate, 16 , 13641377.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Coëtlogon, G., , C. Frankignoul, , M. Bentsen, , C. Delon, , H. Haak, , S. Masina, , and A. Pardaens, 2006: Gulf Stream variability in five oceanic general circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36 , 21192135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delworth, T., , S. Manabe, , and R. Stouffer, 1993: Interdecadal variations of the thermohaline circulation in a coupled ocean–atmosphere model. J. Climate, 6 , 19932011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delworth, T., and Coauthors, 2006: GFDL’s CM2 global coupled climate models. Part I: Formulation and simulation characteristics. J. Climate, 19 , 643674.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deser, C., , and M. L. Blackmon, 1993: Surface climate variations over the North Atlantic Ocean during winter: 1900–1989. J. Climate, 6 , 17431753.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deser, C., , and M. L. Blackmon, 1995: On the relationship between tropical and North Pacific sea surface temperature variations. J. Climate, 8 , 16771680.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deser, C., , M. A. Alexander, , and M. S. Timlin, 1999: Evidence for a wind-driven intensification of the Kuroshio Current Extension from the 1970s to the 1980s. J. Climate, 12 , 16971706.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deser, C., , A. S. Phillips, , and J. W. Hurrell, 2004: Pacific interdecadal climate variability: Linkages between the tropics and the North Pacific during boreal winter since 1900. J. Climate, 17 , 31093124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deshayes, J., , and C. Frankignoul, 2008: Simulated variability of the circulation in the North Atlantic from 1953 to 2003. J. Climate, 21 , 49194933.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dewar, W. K., 2001: On ocean dynamics in midlatitude climate. J. Climate, 14 , 43804397.

  • Dong, B., , and R. T. Sutton, 2005: Mechanism of interdecadal thermohaline circulation variability in a coupled ocean–atmosphere GCM. J. Climate, 18 , 11171135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dong, S., , and K. A. Kelly, 2003: The seasonal and interannual variations in the geostrophic currents in the Middle Atlantic bight. J. Geophys. Res., 108 , 3172. doi:10.1029/2002JC001357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dong, S., , and K. A. Kelly, 2004: Heat budget in the Gulf Stream region: The importance of heat storage and advection. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34 , 12141231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Drévillon, M., , C. Cassou, , and L. Terray, 2003: Model study of the North Atlantic region atmospheric response to autumn tropical Atlantic sea-surface-temperature anomalies. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129 , 25912611.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eden, C., , and J. Willebrand, 2001: Mechanism of interannual to decadal variability of the North Atlantic circulation. J. Climate, 14 , 22662280.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Enfield, D. B., , A. M. Mestas-Nuñez, , and P. J. Trimble, 2001: The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and its relationship to rainfall and river flows in the continental U.S. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28 , 20772080.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ezer, T., 1999: Decadal variabilities of the upper layers of the subtropical North Atlantic: An ocean model study. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29 , 31113124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferreira, D., , C. Frankignoul, , and J. Marshall, 2001: Coupled ocean–atmosphere dynamics in a simple midlatitude climate model. J. Climate, 14 , 37043723.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fletcher, C. G., , and M. A. Saunders, 2006: Winter North Atlantic Oscillation hindcast skill: 1900–2001. J. Climate, 19 , 57625776.

  • Frankignoul, C., , and E. Kestenare, 2002: The surface heat flux feedback. Part I: Estimates from observations in the Atlantic and the North Pacific. Climate Dyn., 19 , 633647.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frankignoul, C., , and E. Kestenare, 2005: Observed Atlantic SST anomaly impact on the NAO: An update. J. Climate, 18 , 40894094.

  • Frankignoul, C., , and N. Sennéchael, 2007: Observed influence of North Pacific SST anomalies on the atmospheric circulation. J. Climate, 20 , 592606.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frankignoul, C., , P. Müller, , and E. Zorita, 1997: A simple model of the decadal response of the ocean to stochastic wind forcing. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27 , 15331546.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frankignoul, C., , G. de Coëtlogon, , T. M. Joyce, , and S. Dong, 2001: Gulf Stream variability and ocean–atmosphere interactions. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31 , 35163529.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Geng, Q., , and M. Sugi, 2003: Possible change of extratropical cyclone activity due to enhanced greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols—Study with a high-resolution AGCM. J. Climate, 16 , 22622274.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gerdes, R., , and C. Köberle, 1995: On the influence of DSOW in a numerical model of the North Atlantic general circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25 , 26242642.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gnanadesikan, A., and Coauthors, 2006: GFDL’s CM2 global coupled climate models. Part II: The baseline ocean simulation. J. Climate, 19 , 675697.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grötzner, A., , M. Latif, , and T. P. Barnett, 1998: A decadal climate cycle in the North Atlantic Ocean as simulated by the ECHO coupled GCM. J. Climate, 11 , 831847.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guan, B., , and S. Nigam, 2008: Pacific sea surface temperatures in the twentieth century: An evolution-centric analysis of variability and trend. J. Climate, 21 , 27902809.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haarsma, R. J., , and W. Hazeleger, 2007: Extratropical atmospheric response to equatorial Atlantic cold tongue anomalies. J. Climate, 20 , 20762091.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Häkkinen, S., , and P. B. Rhines, 2004: Decline of subpolar North Atlantic circulation during the 1990s. Science, 304 , 555559.

  • Häkkinen, S., , and P. B. Rhines, 2009: Shifting surface currents in the northern North Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 114 , C04005. doi:10.1029/2008JC004883.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hanawa, K., , and S. Sugimoto, 2004: “Reemergence” areas of winter sea surface temperature anomalies in the world’s oceans. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 , L10303. doi:10.1029/2004GL019904.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hanawa, K., , Y. Yoshikawa, , and T. Watanabe, 1989: Composite analyses of wintertime wind stress vector fields with respect to SST anomalies in the western North Pacific and the ENSO events. Part II: ENSO composite. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 67 , 833844.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoerling, M. P., , J. Hurrell, , and T. Xu, 2001: Tropical origins for recent North Atlantic climate change. Science, 292 , 9092.

  • Hoerling, M. P., , J. W. Hurrell, , T. Xu, , G. T. Bates, , and A. S. Phillips, 2004: Twentieth century North Atlantic climate change. Part II: Understanding the effect of Indian Ocean warming. Climate Dyn., 23 , 391405.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Honda, M., , and H. Nakamura, 2001: Interannual seesaw between the Aleutian and Icelandic lows. Part II: Its significance in the interannual variability over the wintertime Northern Hemisphere. J. Climate, 14 , 45124529.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Honda, M., , S. Yamane, , and H. Nakamura, 2005: Impacts of the Aleutian–Icelandic low seesaw on surface climate during the twentieth century. J. Climate, 18 , 27932802.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Honda, M., , S. Yamane, , and H. Nakamura, 2007: Inter-basin link between the North Pacific and North Atlantic in the upper tropospheric circulation: Its dominance and seasonal dependence. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 85 , 898908.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskins, B. J., , and P. J. Valdes, 1990: On the existence of storm tracks. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 , 18541864.

  • Huck, T., , and G. K. Vallis, 2001: Linear stability analysis of the three-dimensional thermally-driven ocean circulation: Application to interdecadal variability. Tellus, 53A , 526545.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huck, T., , G. K. Vallis, , and A. Colin de Verdière, 2001: On the robustness of the interdecadal modes of the thermohaline circulation. J. Climate, 14 , 940963.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Inoue, T., , and H. Ueda, 2009: Evaluation for the seasonal evolution of the summer monsoon over the Asian-western Pacific sector in the WCRP CMIP3 multi-model experiments. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 87 , 539560.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jin, F-F., 1997: A theory of interdecadal climate variability of the North Pacific ocean–atmosphere system. J. Climate, 10 , 18211835.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Joyce, T. M., , C. Deser, , and M. A. Spall, 2000: The relation between decadal variability of subtropical mode water and the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 13 , 25502569.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Joyce, T. M., , Y-O. Kwon, , and L. Yu, 2009: On the relationship between synoptic wintertime atmospheric variability and path shifts in the Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio Extension. J. Climate, 22 , 31773192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelly, K. A., , and S. Dong, 2004: The relationship of western boundary current heat transport and storage to mid-latitude ocean–atmosphere interaction. Earth’s Climate: The Ocean–Atmosphere Interaction, Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 147, Amer. Geophys. Union, 347–363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelly, K. A., , L. Thompson, , W. Cheng, , and E. J. Metzger, 2007: Evaluation of HYCOM in the Kuroshio Extension region using new metrics. J. Geophys. Res., 112 , C01004. doi:10.1029/2006JC003614.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelly, K. A., , R. J. Small, , R. M. Samelson, , B. Qiu, , T. M. Joyce, , Y-O. Kwon, , and M. Cronin, 2010: Western Boundary Currents and frontal air–sea interaction: Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Extension. J. Climate, in press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kistler, R., and Coauthors, 2001: The NCEP–NCAR 50-Year Reanalysis: Monthly Means CD-ROM and documentation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82 , 247267.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klein, S. A., , D. L. Hartmann, , and J. R. Norris, 1995: On the relationships among low-cloud structure, sea surface temperature and atmospheric circulation in the summertime northeast Pacific. J. Climate, 8 , 11401155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kravtsov, S., , W. K. Dewar, , P. Berloff, , J. C. McWilliams, , and M. Ghil, 2007: A highly nonlinear coupled mode of decadal variability in a mid-latitude ocean–atmosphere model. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 43 , 123150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kubota, M., , N. Iwasaka, , S. Kizu, , M. Konda, , and K. Kutsuwada, 2002: Japanese ocean flux data sets with use of remote sensing observations (J-OFURO). J. Oceanogr., 58 , 213225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kushnir, Y., 1994: Interdecadal variations in North Atlantic sea surface temperature and associated atmospheric conditions. J. Climate, 7 , 141157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kushnir, Y., , W. A. Robinson, , I. Bladé, , N. M. J. Hall, , S. Peng, , and R. Sutton, 2002: Atmospheric GCM response to extratropical SST anomalies: Synthesis and evaluation. J. Climate, 15 , 22332256.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kwon, Y-O., , and C. Deser, 2007: North Pacific decadal variability in the Community Climate System model version 2. J. Climate, 20 , 24162433.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ladd, C., , and L. Thompson, 2001: Water mass formation in an isopycnal model of the North Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31 , 15171537.

  • Large, W. G., , and G. Danabasoglu, 2006: Attribution and impacts of upper-ocean biases in CCSM3. J. Climate, 19 , 23252346.

  • Latif, M., , and T. P. Barnett, 1994: Causes of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America. Science, 266 , 634637.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Latif, M., , and T. P. Barnett, 1996: Decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America: Dynamics and predictability. J. Climate, 9 , 24072423.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, N-C., , and M. J. Nath, 1994: A modeling study of the relative roles of tropical and extratropical SST anomalies in the variability of the global atmosphere–ocean system. J. Climate, 7 , 11841207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, N-C., , and M. J. Nath, 1996: The role of the “atmospheric bridge” in linking tropical Pacific ENSO events to extratropical SST anomalies. J. Climate, 9 , 20362057.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, N-C., , and M. J. Nath, 2001: Impact of ENSO on SST variability in the North Pacific and North Atlantic: Seasonal dependence and role of extratropical sea–air coupling. J. Climate, 14 , 28462866.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lewis, J. M., , D. Koracin, , and K. Redmond, 2004: Sea fog research in the United Kingdom and United States: A historical essay including outlook. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85 , 395408.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Linkin, M. E., , and S. Nigam, 2008: The North Pacific Oscillation–West Pacific teleconnection pattern: Mature-phase structure and winter impacts. J. Climate, 21 , 19791997.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, Q., , N. Wen, , and Z. Liu, 2006: An observational study of the impact of the North Pacific SST on the atmosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 , L18611. doi:10.1029/2006GL026082.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, Z., 1999a: Forced planetary wave response in a thermocline gyre. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29 , 10361055.

  • Liu, Z., 1999b: Planetary wave modes in thermocline circulation: Non-Doppler-shift mode, advective mode and Green mode. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125 , 13151339.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, Z., , and M. Alexander, 2007: Atmospheric bridge, oceanic tunnel and global climatic teleconnections. Rev. Geophys., 45 , RG2005. doi:10.1029/2005RG000172.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, Z., , Y. Liu, , L. Wu, , and R. Jacob, 2007: Seasonal and long-term atmospheric responses to reemerging North Pacific Ocean variability: A combined dynamical and statistical assessment. J. Climate, 20 , 955980.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maloney, E. D., , and D. B. Chelton, 2006: An assessment of the sea surface temperature influence on surface wind stress in numerical weather prediction and climate models. J. Climate, 19 , 27432762.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maltrud, M. E., , and J. L. McClean, 2005: An eddy resolving global 1/10° ocean simulation. Ocean Modell., 8 , 3154.

  • Mantua, N. J., , S. R. Hare, , Y. Zhang, , J. M. Wallace, , and R. Francis, 1997: A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 10691079.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marshall, J., , H. Johnson, , and J. Goodman, 2001: A study of the interaction of the North Atlantic Oscillation with ocean circulation. J. Climate, 14 , 13991421.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Masumoto, Y., and Coauthors, 2004: A fifty-year eddy-resolving simulation of the World Ocean—Preliminary outcomes of OFES (OGCM for the Earth Simulator). J. Earth Simul., 1 , 3556.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mathieu, P-P., , R. T. Sutton, , B. Dong, , and M. Collins, 2004: Predictability of winter climate over the North Atlantic European region during ENSO events. J. Climate, 17 , 19531974.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, A. J., , D. R. Cayan, , and W. B. White, 1998: A westward-intensified decadal change in the North Pacific thermocline and gyre-scale circulation. J. Climate, 11 , 31123127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, R. L., , G. A. Schmidt, , and D. T. Shindell, 2006: Forced annular variations in the 20th century Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report models. J. Geophys. Res., 111 , D18101. doi:10.1029/2005JD006323.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Minobe, S., 1997: A 50–70-year climatic oscillation over the North Pacific and North America. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24 , 683686.

  • Minobe, S., , A. Kuwano-Yoshida, , N. Komori, , S. Xie, , and R. J. Small, 2008: Influence of the Gulf Stream on the troposphere. Nature, 452 , 206209.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Molinari, R. L., , Z. Garraffo, , and D. Snowden, 2008: Differences between observed and a coupled simulation of North Atlantic sea surface currents and temperature. J. Geophys. Res., 113 , C09011. doi:10.1029/2008JC004848.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakamura, H., , and T. Yamagata, 1999: Recent decadal SST variability in the northwestern Pacific and associated atmospheric anomalies. Beyond El Niño: Decadal and Interdecadal Climate Variability, A. Navarra, Ed., Springer, 49–72.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakamura, H., , and A. S. Kazmin, 2003: Decadal changes in the North Pacific oceanic frontal zones as revealed in ship and satellite observations. J. Geophys. Res., 108 , 3078. doi:10.1029/1999JC000085.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakamura, H., , G. Lin, , and T. Yamagata, 1997: Decadal climate variability in the North Pacific during the recent decades. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 22152225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakamura, H., , T. Sampe, , Y. Tanimoto, , and A. Shimpo, 2004: Observed associations among storm tracks, jet streams and midlatitude oceanic fronts. Earth’s Climate: The Ocean–Atmosphere Interaction, Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 147, Amer. Geophys. Union, 329–346.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakamura, H., , T. Sampe, , A. Goto, , W. Ohfuchi, , and S-P. Xie, 2008: On the importance of midlatitude oceanic frontal zones for the mean state and dominant variability in the tropospheric circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35 , L15709. doi:10.1029/2008GL034010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Namias, J., , and R. M. Born, 1970: Temporal coherence in North Pacific sea-surface temperature patterns. J. Geophys. Res., 75 , 59525955.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Namias, J., , and R. M. Born, 1974: Further studies of temporal coherence in North Pacific sea surface temperatures. J. Geophys. Res., 79 , 797798.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neelin, J. D., , and W. Weng, 1999: Analytical prototypes for ocean–atmosphere interaction at midlatitudes. Part I: Coupled feedbacks as a sea surface temperature dependent stochastic process. J. Climate, 12 , 697721.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newman, M., 2007: Interannual to decadal predictability of tropical and North Pacific sea surface temperatures. J. Climate, 20 , 23332356.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newman, M., , G. P. Compo, , and M. A. Alexander, 2003: ENSO-forced variability of the Pacific decadal oscillation. J. Climate, 16 , 38533857.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ninomiya, K., 2006: Features of the polar air outbreak and the energy balance in the transformed air-mass observed over the Japan Sea. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 84 , 529542.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ninomiya, K., 2009: Characteristics of precipitation in the Meiyu-Baiu season in the CMIP3 20th century climate simulations. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 87 , 829843.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nishii, K., , T. Miyasaka, , Y. Kosaka, , and H. Nakamura, 2009: Reproducibility and future projection of the midwinter storm-track activity over the Far East in the CMIP3 climate models in relation to “Haru-Ichiban” over Japan. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 87 , 581588.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nitta, T., , and S. Yamada, 1989: Recent warming of tropical sea surface temperature and its relationship to the Northern Hemisphere circulation. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 67 , 375383.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nonaka, M., , H. Nakamura, , Y. Tanimoto, , T. Kagimoto, , and H. Sasaki, 2006: Decadal variability in the Kuroshio–Oyashio Extension simulated in an eddy-resolving OGCM. J. Climate, 19 , 19701989.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nonaka, M., , H. Nakamura, , Y. Tanimoto, , T. Kagimoto, , and H. Sasaki, 2008: Interannual-to-decadal variability in the Oyashio and its influence on temperature in the subarctic frontal zone: An eddy-resolving OGCM simulation. J. Climate, 21 , 62836303.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nonaka, M., , H. Nakamura, , B. Taguchi, , N. Komori, , A. Kuwano-Yoshida, , and K. Takaya, 2009: Air–sea heat exchanges characteristic of a prominent midlatitude oceanic front in the South Indian Ocean as simulated in a high-resolution coupled GCM. J. Climate, 22 , 65156535.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Norris, J. R., , and C. B. Leovy, 1994: Interannual variability in stratiform cloudiness and sea surface temperature. J. Climate, 7 , 19151925.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Norris, J. R., , and S. R. Iacobellis, 2005: North Pacific cloud feedbacks inferred from synoptic-scale dynamic and thermodynamic relationships. J. Climate, 18 , 48624878.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Norris, J. R., , Y. Zhang, , and J. M. Wallace, 1998: Role of clouds on summertime atmosphere–ocean interactions over the North Pacific. J. Climate, 11 , 24822490.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ohfuchi, W., , H. Sasaki, , Y. Masumoto, , and H. Nakamura, 2007: “Virtual” atmospheric and oceanic circulations in the Earth Simulator. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88 , 861866.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oshima, K., , and Y. Tanimoto, 2009: An evaluation of reproducibility of Pacific Decadal Oscillation in the CMIP3 simulations. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 87 , 755770.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Osychny, V., , and P. Cornillon, 2004: Properties of Rossby waves in the North Atlantic estimated from satellite data. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34 , 6176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, S., , and C. B. Leovy, 2004: Marine low-cloud anomalies associated with ENSO. J. Climate, 17 , 34483469.

  • Park, S., , C. Deser, , and M. A. Alexander, 2005: Estimation of the surface heat flux response to sea surface temperature anomalies over the global oceans. J. Climate, 18 , 45824599.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, S., , M. A. Alexander, , and C. Deser, 2006: The impact of cloud radiative feedback, remote ENSO forcing, and entrainment on the persistence of North Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies. J. Climate, 19 , 62436261.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peña-Molino, B., , and T. M. Joyce, 2008: Variability in the Slope Water and its relation to the Gulf Stream path. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35 , L03606. doi:10.1029/2007GL032183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peng, S., , and J. S. Whitaker, 1999: Mechanisms determining the atmospheric response to midlatitude SST anomalies. J. Climate, 12 , 13931408.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peng, S., , W. A. Robinson, , and S. Li, 2002: North Atlantic SST forcing of the NAO and relationships with intrinsic hemispheric variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 , 1276. doi:10.1029/2001GL014043.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peng, S., , W. A. Robinson, , S. Li, , and M. P. Hoerling, 2005: Tropical Atlantic SST forcing of coupled North Atlantic seasonal responses. J. Climate, 18 , 480496.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peng, S., , W. A. Robinson, , S. Li, , and M. A. Alexander, 2006: Effects of Ekman transport on the NAO response to a tropical Atlantic SST anomaly. J. Climate, 19 , 48034818.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pierce, D. W., , T. P. Barnett, , N. Schneider, , R. Saravanan, , D. Dommenget, , and M. Latif, 2001: The role of ocean dynamics in producing decadal climate variability in the North Pacific. Climate Dyn., 18 , 5170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pozo-Vázquez, D., , M. J. Esteban-Parra, , F. S. Rodrigo, , and Y. Castro-Díez, 2001: The association between ENSO and winter atmospheric circulation and temperature in the North Atlantic region. J. Climate, 14 , 34083420.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qiu, B., 2000: Interannual variability of the Kuroshio Extension system and its impact on the wintertime SST field. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30 , 14861502.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qiu, B., 2003: Kuroshio Extension variability and forcing of the Pacific decadal oscillations: Responses and potential feedback. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33 , 24652482.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qiu, B., , and K. A. Kelly, 1993: Upper-ocean heat balance in the Kuroshio Extension region. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23 , 20272041.

  • Qiu, B., , and S. Chen, 2005: Variability of the Kuroshio Extension jet, recirculation gyre, and mesoscale eddies on decadal time scales. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35 , 20902103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qiu, B., , N. Schneider, , and S. Chen, 2007: Coupled decadal variability in the North Pacific: An observationally constrained idealized model. J. Climate, 20 , 36023620.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reynolds, R. W., , T. M. Smith, , C. Liu, , D. B. Chelton, , K. S. Casey, , and M. G. Schlax, 2007: Daily high-resolution-blended analyses for sea surface temperature. J. Climate, 20 , 54735496.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ringer, M. A., and Coauthors, 2006: The physical properties of the atmosphere in the New Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM1). Part II: Aspects of variability and regional climate. J. Climate, 19 , 13021326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rodwell, M. J., , M. Drévillon, , C. Frankignoul, , J. W. Hurrell, , H. Pohlmann, , M. Stendel, , and R. T. Sutton, 2004: North Atlantic forcing of climate and its uncertainty from a multi-model experiment. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130 , 20132032.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rossby, T., , and R. L. Benway, 2000: Slow variations in mean path of the Gulf Stream east of Cape Hatteras. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27 , 117120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saji, N. H., , and T. Yamagata, 2003: Possible impacts of Indian Ocean dipole mode events on global climate. Climate Res., 25 , 151169.

  • Sakamoto, T. T., , H. Hasumi, , M. Ishii, , S. Emori, , T. Suzuki, , T. Nishimura, , and A. Sumi, 2005: Responses of the Kuroshio, and the Kuroshio Extension to global warming in a high-resolution climate model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 , L14617. doi:10.1029/2005GL023384.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sampe, T., , H. Nakamura, , A. Goto, , and W. Ohfuchi, 2010: Significance of a midlatitude SST frontal zone in the formation of a storm track and an eddy-driven westerly jet. J. Climate, 23 , 17931814.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saravanan, R., , and J. C. McWilliams, 1997: Stochasticity and spatial resonance in interdecadal climate fluctuations. J. Climate, 10 , 22992320.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sato, Y., , S. Yukimoto, , H. Tsujino, , H. Ishizaki, , and A. Noda, 2006: Response of North Pacific Ocean circulation in a Kuroshio-resolving ocean model to an Arctic Oscillation (AO)-like change in Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation due to greenhouse-gas forcing. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 84 , 295309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schneider, N., , and A. J. Miller, 2001: Predicting western North Pacific Ocean climate. J. Climate, 14 , 39974002.

  • Schneider, N., , and B. D. Cornuelle, 2005: The forcing of the Pacific decadal oscillation. J. Climate, 18 , 43554373.

  • Schneider, N., , A. J. Miller, , and D. W. Pierce, 2002: Anatomy of North Pacific decadal variability. J. Climate, 15 , 586605.

  • Seager, R., , Y. Kushnir, , N. H. Naik, , M. A. Cane, , and J. Miller, 2001: Wind-driven shifts in the latitude of the Kuroshio–Oyashio Extension and generation of SST anomalies on decadal timescales. J. Climate, 14 , 42494265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shaffrey, L., , and R. Sutton, 2004: The interannual variability of energy transports within and over the Atlantic Ocean in a coupled climate model. J. Climate, 17 , 14331448.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sirven, J., , C. Frankignoul, , G. de Coëtlogon, , and V. Taillandier, 2002: Spectrum of wind-driven baroclinic fluctuations of the ocean in the midlatitudes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32 , 24052417.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Small, R. J., and Coauthors, 2008: Air–sea interaction over ocean fronts and eddies. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 45 , 274319.

  • Smith, R. D., , M. E. Maltrud, , F. O. Bryan, , and M. W. Hecht, 2000: Numerical simulation of the North Atlantic Ocean at 1/10°. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30 , 15321561.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Solomon, S., , D. Qin, , M. Manning, , M. Marquis, , K. Averyt, , M. M. B. Tignor, , H. L. Miller Jr., , and Z. Chen, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, 996 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spall, M. A., 1996: Dynamics of the Gulf Stream/deep western boundary current crossover. Part II: Low-frequency internal oscillations. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26 , 21692182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sturges, W., , B. G. Hong, , and A. J. Clarke, 1998: Decadal wind forcing of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28 , 659668.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sugimoto, S., , and K. Hanawa, 2005: Remote reemergence areas of winter sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 , L01606. doi:10.1029/2004GL021410.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sugimoto, S., , and K. Hanawa, 2007: Impact of remote reemergence of the subtropical mode water on winter SST variation in the central North Pacific. J. Climate, 20 , 173186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sugimoto, S., , and K. Hanawa, 2009: Decadal and interdecadal variations of the Aleutian low activity and their relation to upper oceanic variations over the North Pacific. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 87 , 601614.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sutton, R. T., , W. A. Norton, , and S. P. Jewson, 2001: The North Atlantic Oscillation—What role for the ocean? Atmos. Sci. Lett., 1 , 89100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taguchi, B., , S-P. Xie, , H. Mitsudera, , and A. Kubokawa, 2005: Response of the Kuroshio Extension to Rossby waves associated with the 1970s climate regime shift in a high-resolution ocean model. J. Climate, 18 , 29792995.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taguchi, B., , S-P. Xie, , N. Schneider, , M. Nonaka, , H. Sasaki, , and Y. Sasai, 2007: Decadal variability of the Kuroshio Extension: Observations and an eddy-resolving model hindcast. J. Climate, 20 , 23572377.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taguchi, B., , H. Nakamura, , M. Nonaka, , and S-P. Xie, 2009: Influence of the Kuroshio/Oyashio Extensions on air–sea heat exchanges and storm-track activity as revealed in regional atmospheric model simulations for the 2003/04 cold season. J. Climate, 22 , 65366560.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tanimoto, Y., , H. Nakamura, , T. Kagimoto, , and S. Yamane, 2003: An active role of extratropical sea surface temperature anomalies in determining anomalous turbulent heat fluxes. J. Geophys. Res., 108 , 3304. doi:10.1029/2002JC001750.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tanimoto, Y., , S-P. Xie, , K. Kai, , H. Okajima, , H. Tokinaga, , T. Murayama, , M. Nonaka, , and H. Nakamura, 2009: Observations of marine atmospheric boundary layer transitions across the summer Kuroshio Extension. J. Climate, 22 , 13601374.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, A. H., , and J. A. Stephens, 1998: The North Atlantic Oscillation and the latitude of the Gulf Stream. Tellus, 50A , 134142.

  • Taylor, G. I., 1917: The formation of fog and mist. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 43 , 241268.

  • Terray, L., , and C. Cassou, 2002: Tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature forcing of quasi-decadal climate variability over the North Atlantic–European region. J. Climate, 15 , 31703187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas, L. N., , and C. M. Lee, 2005: Intensification of ocean fronts by down-front winds. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35 , 10861102.

  • Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate, 13 , 10001016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, J. D., , and W. J. Schmitz, 1989: A limited-area model of the Gulf Stream: Design, initial experiments and model–data intercomparison. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 19 , 791814.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, L., , and C. Ladd, 2004: The response of the North Pacific Ocean to decadal variability in atmospheric forcing: Wind versus buoyancy forcing. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34 , 13731386.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, L., , and W. Cheng, 2008: Water masses in the Pacific in CCSM3. J. Climate, 21 , 45144528.

  • Timlin, M. S., , M. A. Alexander, , and C. Deser, 2002: On the reemergence of North Atlantic SST anomalies. J. Climate, 15 , 27072712.

  • Timmermann, A., , M. Latif, , R. Voss, , and A. Grötzner, 1998: Northern Hemispheric interdecadal variability: A coupled air–sea mode. J. Climate, 11 , 19061931.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tokinaga, H., and Coauthors, 2006: Atmospheric sounding over the winter Kuroshio Extension: Effect of surface stability on atmospheric boundary layer structure. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 , L04703. doi:10.1029/2005GL025102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tokinaga, H., , Y. Tanimoto, , S-P. Xie, , T. Sampe, , H. Tomita, , and H. Ichikawa, 2009: Ocean frontal effects on the vertical development of clouds over the western North Pacific: In situ and satellite observations. J. Climate, 22 , 42414260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tomita, T., , S-P. Xie, , and M. Nonaka, 2002: Estimates of surface and subsurface forcing for decadal sea surface temperature variability in the mid-latitude North Pacific. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 80 , 12891300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tréguier, A. M., , M. H. England, , S. R. Rintoul, , G. Madec, , J. Le Sommer, , and J. M. Molines, 2007: Southern Ocean overturning across streamlines in an eddying simulation of the Antarctic Circumpolar current. Ocean Sci., 3 , 491507.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., , G. W. Branstator, , D. Karoly, , A. Kumar, , N-C. Lau, , and C. Ropelewski, 1998: Progress during TOGA in understanding and modeling global teleconnections associated with tropical sea surface temperatures. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , (C7). 1429114324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Loon, H., , and J. C. Rogers, 1978: The seesaw in winter temperatures between Greenland and Northern Europe. Part I: General description. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106 , 296310.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Loon, H., , and R. A. Madden, 1981: The Southern Oscillation. Part I: Global associations with pressure and temperature in northern winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109 , 11501162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vimont, D. J., 2005: The contribution of the interannual ENSO cycle to the spatial pattern of decadal ENSO-like variability. J. Climate, 18 , 20802092.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vivier, F., , K. A. Kelly, , and L. Thompson, 2002: Heat budget in the Kuroshio Extension region: 1993–99. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32 , 34363454.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallace, J. M., , and D. S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109 , 784812.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallace, J. M., , and P. V. Hobbs, 2006: Atmospheric Science: An Introductory Survey. 2nd ed. Academic Press, 483 pp.

  • Wang, W., , B. T. Anderson, , R. K. Kaufmann, , and R. B. Myneni, 2004: The relation between the North Atlantic Oscillation and SSTs in the North Atlantic basin. J. Climate, 17 , 47524759.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watanabe, M., , and M. Kimoto, 2000: On the persistence of decadal SST anomalies in the North Atlantic. J. Climate, 13 , 30173028.

  • Weare, B., 1994: Interrelationships between cloud properties and sea surface temperatures on seasonal and interannual time scales. J. Climate, 7 , 248260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • White, W. B., 1995: Design of a global observing system for gyre-scale upper ocean temperature variability. Prog. Oceanogr., 36 , 169217.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, L., , and Z. Liu, 2005: North Atlantic decadal variability: Air–sea coupling, oceanic memory, and potential Northern Hemisphere resonance. J. Climate, 18 , 331349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, L., , D. E. Lee, , and Z. Liu, 2005: The 1976/77 North Pacific climate regime shift: The role of subtropical ocean adjustment and coupled ocean–atmosphere feedbacks. J. Climate, 18 , 51255140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, S-P., , T. Kunitani, , A. Kubokawa, , M. Nonaka, , and S. Hosoda, 2000: Interdecadal thermocline variability in the North Pacific for 1958–97: A GCM simulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30 , 27982813.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, S-P., , K. Hu, , J. Hafner, , H. Tokinaga, , Y. Du, , G. Huang, , and T. Sampe, 2009: Indian Ocean capacitor effect on Indo-Western Pacific climate during the summer following El Niño. J. Climate, 22 , 730747.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xue, H., , J. M. Bane Jr., , and L. M. Goodman, 1995: Modification of the Gulf Stream through strong air–sea interactions in winter: Observations and numerical simulations. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25 , 533557.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, J. L., , Q. Y. Liu, , Z. Liu, , L. Wu, , and F. Huang, 2009: Basin mode of Indian Ocean sea surface temperature and Northern Hemisphere circumglobal teleconnection. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36 , L19705. doi:10.1029/2009GL039559.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yasuda, I., 2003: Hydrographic structure and variability in the Kuroshio–Oyashio transition area. J. Oceanogr., 59 , 389402.

  • Yasuda, I., , K. Okuda, , and Y. Shimizu, 1996: Distribution and modification of North Pacific Intermediate Water in the Kuroshio–Oyashio interfrontal zone. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26 , 448465.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yeager, S. G., , and M. Jochum, 2009: The connection between Labrador Sea buoyancy loss, Deep Western Boundary Current strength, and Gulf Stream path in an ocean circulation model. Ocean Modell., 30 , 207224.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, L., , X. Jin, , and R. A. Weller, 2008: Multidecadel global flux datasets from the Objectively Analyzed Air–Sea Fluxes (OAFlux) Project: Latent and sensible heat fluxes, ocean evaporation, and related surface meteorological variables. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, OAFlux Project Tech. Rep. OA-2008-01, 64 pp. [Available online at http://oaflux.whoi.edu/].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yuan, X., , and L. D. Talley, 1996: The subarctic frontal zone in the North Pacific: Characteristics of frontal structure from climatological data and synoptic surveys. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 1649116508.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, R., 2008: Coherent surface-subsurface fingerprint of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35 , L20705. doi:10.1029/2008GL035463.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, R., , and G. K. Vallis, 2006: Impact of great salinity anomalies on the low-frequency variability of the North Atlantic climate. J. Climate, 19 , 470482.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, R., , and G. K. Vallis, 2007: The role of bottom vortex stretching on the path of the North Atlantic western boundary current and on the northern recirculation gyre. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37 , 20532080.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, Y., , J. M. Wallace, , and D. S. Battisti, 1997: ENSO-like interdecadal variability: 1900–93. J. Climate, 10 , 10041020.

  • Zhong, Y., , and Z. Liu, 2009: On the mechanism of Pacific multidecadal climate variability in CCSM3: The role of subpolar North Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39 , 20522076.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhong, Y., , Z. Liu, , and R. Jacob, 2008: Origin of Pacific multidecadal variability in the Community Climate System Model, Version 3 (CCSM3): A combined statistical and dynamical assessment. J. Climate, 21 , 114133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zorita, E., , and C. Frankignoul, 1997: Modes of North Atlantic decadal variability in the ECHAM1/LSG coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model. J. Climate, 10 , 183200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • View in gallery

    Schematic summary of the processes affecting the SST variability in the WBC region.

  • View in gallery

    Climatological mean (contours) and standard deviation (color shading) of the annual mean SST for 1982–2008 based on the NOAA high-resolution (0.25° latitude × 0.25° longitude) SST dataset version 2 (Reynolds et al. 2007). The contour intervals (CIs) for the mean are 2°C: (a) North Pacific and (b) North Atlantic.

  • View in gallery

    Latitude–depth sections for five-winter (January–March) mean fields of temperature (black contours) and meridional gradient (color shading; top right) for (top) 1984–88 and (middle) 1968–72, based on their averages between 145° and 160°E for (left) the OFES simulation and (right) hydrographic observations compiled by White (1995). (bottom) Color shadings (bottom right) indicate the changes in five-winter mean temperature from 1968–72 to 1984–88. CIs for temperature are 1°C. Unit for the gradients is °C (100 km)−1. [After Nonaka et al. (2006)]

  • View in gallery

    Monthly 1° resolution (a),(d) sensible heat flux (SHF; W m−2) and (b),(e) latent heat flux (LHF; W m−2) from the ocean for December (a),(b) 2003 and (d),(e) 2005 over the western North Pacific, shaded as indicated below (d) and (e). CIs are (a),(d) 30 (solid lines for ≥120; dashed lines for ≤90) and (b),(e) 50 (solid lines for ≥250; dashed lines for ≤200). Figures are based on the Japanese Ocean Flux Datasets with Use of Remote Sensing Observations (JOFURO; Kubota et al. 2002), which have been derived from moisture data from microwave sensor [Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)/Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I)] and SST (Reynolds et al. 2007). ECMWF analysis data have also been incorporated into the estimation of SHF. Note that the East Asian winter monsoon in December was close to the normal strength in 2003, while in 2005 it was the strongest in the postwar period. (c),(f) Anomalous bimonthly SST tendency into January from November of 2003 and 2005, shaded as indicated. Contoured for the strong cooling tendency of 2° and 4°C. (From T. Miyasaka 2009, private communication).

  • View in gallery

    Distribution of lag correlation coefficients as a function of depth with the reference temperature averaged from the sea surface to 20-m depth during March, the month of deepest MLD, for the (a) northern North Pacific (37°–45°N, 157°E–179°W), (b) northern North Atlantic (41°–53°N, 19°–35°W), (c) southern North Pacific (27°–33°N, 141°–159°E) and (d) southern North Atlantic (33°–39°N, 45°–65°W). The averaging regions are same as in Hanawa and Sugimoto (2004). The solid line in each panel denotes seasonal change of the MLD. The temperatures are from the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA; Carton and Giese 2008) for the years 1958–2007 and the long-term mean MLD is from White (1995).

  • View in gallery

    Vertical sections showing reemergence of SST anomalies over the North Pacific along the line between 30°N, 145°E and 34°N, 150°W. Red lines indicate domains where the correlation coefficients of subsurface temperature anomalies with a reference index exceed 0.7 for lags of (top to bottom) 0, 6, 9, and 12 months. The index has been defined as winter-mean SST anomalies averaged over 27°–33°N, 137°–154°E. Color shading represents the strength of vertical temperature gradient [°C (100 m)−1], as indicated on the right. Black lines denote the mixed layer bottom. (After Sugimoto and Hanawa 2005)

  • View in gallery

    SSH anomalies along the zonal band of 32°–34°N in the North Pacific from (a) satellite altimeter data and (b) the wind-forced baroclinic Rossby wave model, where the winds are obtained from the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis (Kistler et al. 2001). (c) PDO SST index as defined by Mantua et al. (1997; available online at http://jisao.washington.edu/pdo/PDO.latest).

  • View in gallery

    SSH anomalies along the zonal band of 32°–34°N in the North Atlantic from the satellite altimeter data. Solid contours indicate zero anomalies.

  • View in gallery

    The composite El Niño–La Niña SST (shading, CI = 0.2°C) and climatological mean SST (contours, CI = 4°C) during (a) FMA (year 1), the winter after ENSO peaks, and (b) ASO (year 0), the previous summer. The observations are from the NOAA high-resolution (0.25° latitude × 0.25° longitude) SST dataset (Reynolds et al. 2007) that spans 1985–2007; 1987, 1991, 1997, 2002, 2006, and 1988, 1998, 1999, and 2005 and were used as year 0 in the El Niño (La Niña) composites. The regions of strong mean SST are associated with the KE and GS. (c) Composite El Niño–La Niña temperature (shading, CI = 0.2°C) and MLD during El Niño and La Niña events over the years 1958–2001 as a function of the ENSO cycle in the western North Pacific region [35°–45°N, 150°–180° E; gray box in (b)]. The temperatures are from SODA (Carton and Giese 2008) and the MLD from White (1995).

  • View in gallery

    (a) The tropical SST anomaly (°C) used to force the AGCM–mixed layer model. (b) The 500-hPa response (m), during FMA given by the ensemble mean difference between simulations with positive and negative [−1 × those in (a)] tropical SST anomalies. (c) SST response in the 75-m mixed layer model driven by surface fluxes and Ekman heat transport. Shading denotes areas where the response is significant at the 95% level as estimated by a Student’s t test. (Adapted from Peng et al. 2006)

  • View in gallery

    (a) Standard deviation of January–March (JFM) SST from NCEP–NCAR reanalysis I for 1948–2006. SST is low-pass filtered to retain periods >7 years. CIs are 0.1°C. (b) As in (a), but high-pass filtered to retain periods <7 years. Both (a) and (b) are reproduced based on Fig. 1 of Nakamura et al. (1997). (c),(d) As in (a),(b), but for the North Atlantic and with a 5-yr cutoff for the low-pass and high-pass filters. Five years were used for the cutoff of the low-pass and high-pass filters instead of 7 years as in the North Pacific to reflect the smaller basin size and thus a relatively shorter time for the Rossby wave for the adjustment of the basin via first baroclinic mode Rossby waves. However, consistent results are obtained from different cutoff between 5 and 10 years.

  • View in gallery

    Leading EOFs of winter [November–March (NDJFM)] SST for 1982–2008 based on the NOAA high-resolution (0.25° latitude × 0.25° longitude) SST, version 2 (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/research/sst/oi-daily.php). Note that the trends are not removed before calculating the EOFs. The amplitudes correspond to the 1σ change in the corresponding principal component time series. The fraction of total variance explained by each mode is shown in the bracket. The zero contours are plotted in black.

  • View in gallery

    (a) The 22-yr mean of each winter’s (JFM) standard deviation of the 2–8-day bandpass-filtered daily latent heat flux from the objectively analyzed air–sea fluxes (OAFlux) for 1983–2004 (Yu et al. 2008). Contours are the climatological mean winter (JFM) SST with 2°C interval. (b) Interannual standard deviation of each winter (JFM)’s standard deviation of the 2–8-day bandpass-filtered daily latent heat flux. (c),(d) As in (a),(b), but for the North Atlantic. The figure is reproduced from Figs. 7 and 12 of Joyce et al. (2009).

  • View in gallery

    Difference between mean SST in the (a),(b) North Pacific and (c),(d) North Atlantic for (a),(c) CCSM3 and (b),(d) an ocean-only simulation using the ocean model in CCSM3.

  • View in gallery

    MLD in the (a)–(c) North Pacific and (d)–(f) North Atlantic from (top) observations, (middle) a coupled ocean–atmosphere version of CCSM3, and (bottom) an ocean-only version of the same model.

  • View in gallery

    (left to right) Vertically averaged distributions of available potential energy (APE) conversion (10 m2 s−2 day−1), eddy APE (m2 s−2), eddy kinetic energy (KE) (m2 s−2), and KE conversion (10 m2 s−2 day−1) for spring 2004 with (top) observed frontal SST and (bottom) artificially smoothed SST as the boundary condition. The APE and KE conversions are defined to be positive where eddies extract energy from the seasonal mean flow. The SST is shown as a black line with 1 K CI (Taguchi et al. 2009).

  • View in gallery

    Maximum covariance pattern between monthly geopotential height anomalies at 500 hPa (CI = 5 m, with negative values dashed) in early winter and previous SST anomalies (gray shading with white contours for positive values and black contours for positive values), based on the NCEP reanalysis in 1958–97. Here L indicates the lag in month (months are given by their first letter), C is correlation, SC is the square covariance, and F is the SC fraction. Here, the 3-month lag does not indicate delayed response but reflects SST persistence and the finite atmospheric response time. Statistical significance is indicated. (From Czaja and Frankignoul 2002).

  • View in gallery

    (top) Regression of monthly anomalies of SST in AMJ and (middle) 250-hPa geopotential height 4 months later in ASO onto the AMJ SST anomalies in the KE box shown in the upper panel [(bottom) time series], based on the NCEP reanalysis in 1977–2004. The ENSO signal and a quadratic trend have been removed, and the thick line indicates the 5% level of significance. See Frankignoul and Sennéchael (2007) for details.

  • View in gallery

    Annual mean (a) SST and (b) wind stress curl response from the CAM2 ocean mixed layer model integration with specified heat flux divergence in the KE. CI is 0.2°C for SST and 0.2 × 10−8 N m−3 for wind stress curl. Negative values are dashed; shading indicates a response significant at the 1% level. (From Kwon and Deser 2007).

  • View in gallery

    (top) Long-term mean meridional temperature gradient in the control run (1971–2000) and (bottom) its difference between the end of the CO2 run (2071–2100) and the control runs for the (left) western North Pacific and (right) North Atlantic with MIROC3.2. Units are °C (° latitude)−1. (From T. Miyasaka 2009, personal communication).

  • View in gallery

    First EOF of the (top left) AMOC [Sv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1)], (top right) the barotropic streamfunction (BTSF; in Sv), and (bottom left) the GS shifts (as estimated by the temperature changes at 270-m depth along its mean axis) and (bottom right) the corresponding normalized principal components in a 1958–2002 hindcast with the global ORCA025 model forced by fields derived from ERA-40. The run started from Levitus climatology, and the first 10 years are omitted. A temperature increase along the GS axis corresponds to a northward shift.

  • View in gallery

    (top) First EOF of 0–400-m heat content anomalies in the North Atlantic and North Pacific (from JEDAC) and (bottom) its time series. An index for the Arctic Oscillation is shown for comparison (correlation of 0.49 when the AO leads by 13 months). (From Kelly and Dong 2004).