This research has been supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada through a Post Doctoral Fellowship to the first author. JP’s contribution was funded by the NOAA Climate Program Office. The first author is grateful to Drs. Michael Sigmond and John Scinocca for performing the model simulations, to Drs. Ted Shepherd and Charles McLandress for many helpful discussions, to Dr. Mark Baldwin for providing his EOF code, and to Dr. Ed Gerber for providing his code to calculate the NAM time scales. The authors are also grateful to three anonymous reviewers for helping to improve the manuscript.
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