We thank M. Inatsu, M. Watanabe, K. Yamazaki, J. R. Small, L. O’Neill, and M. Ghil for discussions. Constructive comments from anonymous reviewers were quite helpful toward improving the presentation. The QuikSCAT data were obtained from RSS and the AIRS data from NASA GES DISC. This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research defrayed by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan; NASA; NOAA; NSF; and JAMSTEC.
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