This research was funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) under the project title “Social vulnerability to climate change in the Alaskan coastal zone” (Grant NA06OAR4600179). We are grateful for NCAR for providing their datasets in the public domain. We would like to thank Dr. John Walsh, from the International Arctic Research Center at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, for the invaluable comments on the paper. We also thank Dr. Asgeir Sorteberg, from the University of Bergen (Norway), and Christine Radermacher, from the University of Bonn (Germany), for the initial data setup discussions. We appreciate comments made by the anonymous reviewers.
Atkinson, D. E., 2005: Observed storminess patterns and trends in the circum-Arctic coastal regime. Geo-Mar. Lett., 25 , (2–3). 98–109.
Bell, G. D., and L. F. Bosart, 1989: A 15-year climatology of Northern Hemisphere 500 mb closed cyclone and anticyclone centers. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117 , 2142–2164.
Bengtsson, L., S. Hagemann, and K. I. Hodges, 2004: Can climate trends be calculated from reanalysis data? J. Geophys. Res., 109 , D11111. doi:10.1029/2004JD004536.
Bengtsson, L., K. I. Hodges, and N. Keenlyside, 2009: Will extratropical storms intensify in a warmer climate? J. Climate, 22 , 2276–2301.
Bromwich, D. H., R. L. Fogt, K. I. Hodges, and J. E. Walsh, 2007: A tropospheric assessment of the ERA-40, NCEP, and JRA-25 global reanalyses in the polar regions. J. Geophys. Res., 112 , D10111. doi:10.1029/2006JD007859.
Chang, C. B., D. J. Perkey, and C. W. Kreitzberg, 1982: A numerical case study of the effects of latent heating on a developing wave cyclone. J. Atmos. Sci., 39 , 1555–1570.
Frisius, T., F. Lunkeit, K. Fraedrich, and I. N. James, 1998: Storm-track organization and variability in a simplified atmospheric global circulation model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 124 , 1019–1043.
Graham, N. E., and H. F. Diaz, 2001: Evidence for intensification of North Pacific winter cyclones since 1948. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82 , 1869–1893.
Hodges, K. I., 1994: A general method for tracking analysis and its application to meteorological data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122 , 2573–2586.
Hodges, K. I., 1996: Spherical nonparametric estimators applied to the UGAMP model integration for AMIP. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124 , 2914–2932.
Hodges, K. I., B. J. Hoskins, J. Boyle, and C. Thorncroft, 2003: A comparison of recent reanalysis datasets using objective feature tracking: Storm tracks and tropical easterly waves. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 2012–2037.
Honda, M., K. Yamazaki, H. Nakamura, and K. Takeuchi, 1999: Dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of atmospheric response to anomalous sea-ice extent in the Sea of Okhotsk. J. Climate, 12 , 3347–3358.
Hoskins, B. J., and K. I. Hodges, 2002: New perspectives on the Northern Hemisphere winter storm tracks. J. Atmos. Sci., 59 , 1041–1061.
Key, J. R., and A. C. K. Chan, 1999: Multidecadal global and regional trends in 1000 mb and 500 mb cyclone frequencies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 , 2053–2056.
Kistler, R., and Coauthors, 2001: The NCEP–NCAR 50-Year Reanalysis: Monthly means CD-ROM and documentation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82 , 247–267.
Latif, M., and T. P. Barnett, 1996: Decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America: Dynamics and predictability. J. Climate, 9 , 2407–2423.
Lau, N-C., 1988: Variability of the observed midlatitude storm tracks in relation to low-frequency changes in the circulation pattern. J. Atmos. Sci., 45 , 2718–2743.
McCabe, G. J., M. P. Clark, and M. C. Serreze, 2001: Trends in Northern Hemisphere surface cyclone frequency and intensity. J. Climate, 14 , 2763–2768.
Mesquita, Md S., N. G. Kvamstø, A. Sorteberg, and D. E. Atkinson, 2008: Climatological properties of summertime extra-tropical storm tracks in the Northern Hemisphere. Tellus, 60A , 557–569.
Murray, R., and I. Simmonds, 1991: A numerical scheme for tracking cyclone centres from digital data. Part I: Development and operation of the scheme. Aust. Meteor. Mag., 39 , 155–166.
Norris, J. R., 2000: Interannual and interdecadal variability in the storm track, cloudiness, and sea surface temperature over the summertime North Pacific. J. Climate, 13 , 422–430.
Pickart, R. S., G. W. K. Moore, A. M. Macdonald, I. A. Renfrew, J. E. Walsh, and W. S. Kessler, 2009: Seasonal evolution of Aleutian low-pressure systems: Implications for the North Pacific sub-polar circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39 , 1317–1339.
Posselt, D. J., G. L. Stephens, and M. Miller, 2008: CLOUDSAT: Adding a new dimension to a classical view of extratropical cyclones. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 89 , 599–609.
Qiu, B., 2000: Interannual variability of the Kuroshio Extension system and its impact on the wintertime SST field. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30 , 1486–1502.
Rachold, V., F. E. Are, D. E. Atkinson, G. Cherkashov, and S. M. Solomon, 2005: Arctic coastal dynamics—An introduction. Geo-Mar. Lett., 25 , (2–3). 63–68.
Serreze, M. C., F. Carse, R. G. Barry, and J. C. Rogers, 1997: Icelandic low cyclone activity: Climatological features, linkages with the NAO, and relationships with recent changes in the Northern Hemisphere circulation. J. Climate, 10 , 453–464.
Serreze, M. C., A. H. Lynch, and M. P. Clark, 2001: The Arctic frontal zone as seen in the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis. J. Climate, 14 , 1550–1567.
Simmonds, I., and K. Keay, 2002: Surface fluxes of momentum and mechanical energy over the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 80 , 1–18.
Sorteberg, A., and J. E. Walsh, 2008: Seasonal cyclone variability at 70°N and its impact on moisture transport into the Arctic. Tellus, 60A , 570–586.
White, G. H., 1982: An observational study of the Northern Hemisphere extratropical summertime general circulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 39 , 24–40.
Whittaker, L., and L. Horn, 1984: Northern Hemisphere extratropical cyclone activity for four mid-season months. J. Climatol., 4 , 297–310.
Zhang, X., J. E. Walsh, J. Zhang, U. S. Bhatt, and M. Ikeda, 2004: Climatology and interannual variability of Arctic cyclone activity: 1948–2002. J. Climate, 17 , 2300–2317.