The authors thank Dr. Greg Holland and an anonymous reviewer for their valuable comments and Dr. Xiouhua Fu for his help in the implementation of the ECHAM4 AGCM at Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology. This research was jointly supported by the typhoon research project (2009CB421503) of the national basic research program (the 973 Program) of China, the National Science Foundation of China (NSFC Grant 408750387), and the social commonweal research program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China (GYHY200806009). This research was also supported by Dr. Ramesh Kakar (NASA HQ) through the NASA NAMMA and EOS projects.
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