This research is supported by the Precipitation Measurement Missions, NASA headquarters. The authors thank Dr. Hiroshiko Masunaga for providing brightness temperature and echo-top height data and Mr. Stephen Lang and Dr. Wei-Kuo Tao for providing the latent heating data. The comments and suggestions of two anonymous reviewers are much appreciated.
Awaka, J., , T. Iguchi, , and K. Okamoto, 2004: On rain type classification algorithm TRMM PR 2A23 V6. Extended Abstracts, Second TRMM Int. Conf., Nara, Japan, JAXA.
Benedict, J. J., , and D. A. Randall, 2007: Observed characteristics of the MJO relative to maximum rainfall. J. Atmos. Sci., 64 , 2332–2354.
Emanuel, K. A., , J. D. Neelin, , and C. S. Bretherton, 1994: On large-scale circulations in convective atmospheres. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 120 , 1111–1143.
Hayashi, Y., , and D. G. Golder, 1993: Tropical 40–50- and 25–30-day oscillations appearing in realistic and idealized GFDL climate models and the ECMWF dataset. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 464–494.
Hendon, H., , and B. Liebmann, 1994: Organization of convection within the Madden-Julian oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 99 , 8073–8083.
Houze Jr., R. A., 1989: Observed structure of mesoscale convective systems and implications for large-scale heating. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 115 , 425–461.
Jakob, C., , and C. Schumacher, 2008: Precipitation and latent heating characteristics of the major tropical western Pacific cloud regimes. J. Climate, 21 , 4348–4364.
Johnson, R. H., , T. M. Rickenbach, , S. A. Rutledge, , P. E. Ciesielski, , and W. H. Schubert, 1999: Trimodal characteristics of tropical convection. J. Climate, 12 , 2379–2418.
Khouider, B., , and A. J. Majda, 2007: A simple multicloud parameterization for convectively coupled tropical waves. Part II: Nonlinear simulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 64 , 2332–2354.
Kummerow, C., , W. Barnes, , T. Kozu, , J. Shiue, , and J. Simpson, 1998: The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) sensor package. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15 , 809–817.
Lau, K-M., , and P. H. Chan, 1985: Aspects of the 40–50 day oscillation during the northern winter as inferred from outgoing longwave radiation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113 , 1889–1909.
Lau, K-M., , and L. Peng, 1987: Origin of low-frequency (intraseasonal) oscillations in the tropical atmosphere. Part I: Basic theory. J. Atmos. Sci., 44 , 950–972.
Lau, K-M., , and H-T. Wu, 2003: Warm rain processes over tropical oceans and climate implications. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 , 2290–2294.
Lau, K-M., , and D. E. Waliser, 2005: Intraseasonal Variability in the Atmosphere-Ocean Climate System. Springer Praxis Books, 474 pp.
Lau, K-M., , L. Peng, , C. H. Sui, , and T. Nakazawa, 1989: Dynamics of super clusters, westerly wind bursts, 30–60 day oscillations, and ENSO: A unified view. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 67 , 205–219.
Lau, K-M., , H-T. Wu, , Y. Sud, , and G. Walker, 2005: Effects of cloud microphysics on tropical atmospheric hydrologic processes and intraseasonal variability. J. Climate, 18 , 4731–4751.
Lee, M-I., , I. S. Kang, , J-K. Kim, , and B. E. Mapes, 2001: Influence of cloud-radiation interaction on simulating tropical intraseasonal oscillation with an atmospheric general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 14219–14233.
Li, C., , X. Jia, , J. Ling, , W. Zou, , and C. Zhang, 2009: Sensitivity of MJO simulations to diabatic heating profiles. Climate Dyn., 32 , 167–187.
Lin, J., , B. E. Mapes, , M. Zhang, , and M. Newman, 2004: Stratiform precipitation, vertical heating profiles, and the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 61 , 296–309.
Lin, J., and Coauthors, 2006: Tropical intraseasonal variability in 14 IPCC AR4 climate models. Part I: Convective signals. J. Climate, 19 , 2665–2690.
Madden, R. A., , and P. R. Julian, 1972: Description of global-scale circulation cells in the tropics with a 40–50 day period. J. Atmos. Sci., 29 , 1109–1123.
Marshall, A. G., , O. Alves, , and H. H. Hendon, 2008: An enhanced moisture convergence–evaporation feedback mechanism for MJO air–sea interaction. J. Atmos. Sci., 65 , 970–986.
Masunaga, H., , and C. D. Kummerow, 2006: Observations of tropical precipitating clouds ranging from shallow to deep convective systems. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 , L16805. doi:10.1029/2006GL026547.
Masunaga, H., , T. S. L’Ecuyer, , and C. D. Kummerow, 2005: Variability in the characteristics of precipitation systems in the tropical Pacific. Part I: Spatial structure. J. Climate, 18 , 823–840.
Masunaga, H., , T. S. L’Ecuyer, , and C. D. Kummerow, 2006: The Madden–Julian oscillation recorded in early observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). J. Atmos. Sci., 63 , 2777–2794.
Nakazawa, T., 1988: Tropical super clusters within intraseasonal variations over the western Pacific. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 66 , 823–839.
Pohl, B., , and A. J. Matthews, 2007: Observed changes in the lifetime and amplitude of the Madden–Julian oscillation associated with interannual ENSO sea surface temperature anomalies. J. Climate, 20 , 2659–2674.
Schumacher, C., , and R. A. Houze Jr., 2003: Stratiform rain in the tropics as seen by the TRMM precipitation radar. J. Climate, 16 , 1739–1756.
Short, D. A., , and K. Nakamura, 2000: TRMM radar observations of shallow precipitation over the tropical oceans. J. Climate, 13 , 4107–4124.
Slingo, J. M., and Coauthors, 1996: Intraseasonal oscillations in 15 atmospheric general circulation models: Results from an AMIP diagnostic subproject. Climate Dyn., 12 , 325–357.
Sperber, K. R., , S. Gualdi, , S. Legutke, , and V. Gayler, 2005: The Madden–Julian oscillation in ECHAM4 coupled and uncoupled general circulation models. Climate Dyn., 25 , 117–140.
Tao, W-K., , S. Lang, , J. Simpson, , and R. Adler, 1993: Retrieval algorithms for estimating the vertical profiles for latent heat release. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 71 , 685–700.
Waliser, D. E., , K. M. Lau, , and J-H. Kim, 1999: The influence of coupled sea surface temperatures on the Madden–Julian oscillation: A model perturbation experiment. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 333–358.
Waliser, D. E., and Coauthors, 2003: AGCM simulations of intraseasonal variability associated with the Asian summer monsoon. Climate Dyn., 21 , 423–446.
Wang, B., , and T. Li, 1994: Convective interaction with boundary-layer dynamics in the development of a tropical intraseasonal system. J. Atmos. Sci., 51 , 1386–1400.
Wheeler, M., , and G. N. Kiladis, 1999: Convectively coupled equatorial waves: Analysis of clouds and temperature in the wavenumber–frequency domain. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 374–399.
Wheeler, M., , and H. H. Hendon, 2004: An all-season real-time multivariate MJO index: Development of an index for monitoring and prediction. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 1917–1932.
Wu, Z., 2003: A shallow CISK, deep equilibrium mechanism for the interaction between large-scale convection and large-scale circulations in the tropics. J. Atmos. Sci., 60 , 377–392.
Yanai, M., , S. Esbensen, , and J-H. Chu, 1973: Determination of bulk properties of tropical cloud clusters from large-scale heat ad moisture budgets. J. Atmos. Sci., 30 , 611–627.
Zhang, G. J., , and M. Mu, 2005: Simulation of the Madden–Julian oscillation in the NCAR CCM3 using a revised Zhang–McFarlane convection parameterization scheme. J. Climate, 18 , 4046–4064.