The authors are thankful for their discussions with D. Ferreira and C. Frankignoul and the trustful support from V. Thierry and H. Mercier. They also thank I. Watterson and two anonymous reviewers for their useful and constructive comments. G. Maze was partially funded by the second work package of the GIS Europole Mer (http://www.europolemer.eu).
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Given that in this QG layer model, a temperature anomaly into a particular layer is related, via the thermal wind balance, to opposite geopotential height anomalies at the two pressure levels embedding the layer.