SL and SBF were supported by National Science Foundation Grants ATM-0649512 and ATM-1036858. TG was supported by National Science Foundation Grant ATM-0944208, a supplemental grant under Grant ATM-0649512. NJ was supported by the NOAA Climate Program Office. The authors acknowledge helpful comments by two anonymous reviewers.
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This trend calculations begin with 1979 because the latter two datasets are first available for that year.
The PDO is defined as the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) of monthly SST anomalies in the North Pacific Ocean poleward of 20°N (Mantua et al. 1997).
The methodology is briefly described for the 250-hPa streamfunction: we first divide ψ250 into the PDO component and a residual where the PDO component is calculated by linearly regressing ψ250 against the SST-based PDO index and then by projecting daily ψ250 onto this ψ250 PDO pattern. In doing so, the PDO and the residual components are constructed to be orthogonal to each other. The same approach is used for the other variables in Fig. 2. For more detail, see Eqs. (2)–(5) of Feldstein (2003).
For this calculation, we estimate the number of effective spatial degrees of freedom to be 18 and 86 for the streamfunction and convective precipitation fields, respectively, based on the eigenvalue formula estimate (Bretherton et al. 1999).