Support for this project was provided by the NASA Modeling, Analysis and Prediction (MAP) Program, and the NOAA Climate Prediction Program for the Americas (CPPA).
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For the subseasonal variance, using an unbiased estimate is especially important since for each year there are only N = 3 terms in the sum of squares. The unbiased variance estimate for each year is obtained by dividing the sum of squares by N − 1 = 2. These are then averaged over 32 years.
The calculation takes into account the fact that the REOFs are not spatially orthogonal.
Here, we consider the temporal correlation maps (e.g., those shown in Figs. 4 and 5) as measuring the temperature (or precipitation) “fingerprints” of the upper-level REOFs. The spatial correlation between those correlation maps (or fingerprints) and the actual anomalies gives a measure of the contribution of the REOF in question to those anomalies.
Precipitation recycling is defined as the contribution of evaporation in a region to the precipitation in the same region.
The SWM is forced with the transient vorticity forcing with the zonal mean removed (the eddy component).