We are grateful to Dargan Frierson, Jack Scheff, Darryn Waugh, and Isaac Held for thoughtful suggestions. We also thank two anonymous reviewers and Tapio Schneider whose comments greatly helped to improve the manuscript. This work was funded, in part, by a grant from the National Science Foundation to Columbia University. We acknowledge the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) and the WCRP’s Working Group on Coupled Modelling (WGCM) for their roles in making available the WCRP CMIP3 multimodel dataset. Support of this dataset is provided by the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy.
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