We thank the international modeling groups for providing their data for analysis, the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) for collecting and archiving the model data, the JSC/CLIVAR Working Group on Coupled Modeling (WGCM) and their Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) and Climate Simulation Panel for organizing the model data analysis activity, and the IPCC WG1 TSU for technical support. The IPCC Data Archive at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is supported by the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy. We also thank Drs. Paul Baker and Song S. Qian for insightful discussion, Dr. Tianjun Zhou and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments, Dr. Muhammad Shaikh for graphic help, and Mr. John Trostel for editorial assistance. This work is supported by the startup funds from Duke University, the NOAA Climate Prediction Program for Americas (OAR-OGP-2006-2000116, NA10OAR4310157). Yi Deng is supported by NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) under Grant NNX09AJ36G.
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