We thank Marika Holland for offering data from her sensitivity experiment with prescribed climatological sea ice freshwater flux to the ocean. We thank Joellen Russell, Ilana Wainer, and Gokhan Danabasoglu for their helpful conversations about modeling Southern Ocean dynamics. We thank David Battisti and Igor Kamenkovich for their assistance while serving on the committee for the master’s thesis out of which this article grew. We also thank three anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on this article. This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Climate Change and Prediction Program Grant 0013706.
Aiken, C. M., and M. H. England, 2008: Sensitivity of the present-day climate to freshwater forcing associated with Antarctic sea ice loss. J. Climate, 21, 3936–3946.
Arblaster, J. M., and G. A. Meehl, 2006: Contributions of external forcings to southern annular mode trends. J. Climate, 19, 2896–2905.
Bitz, C. M., P. R. Gent, R. A. Woodgate, M. M. Holland, and R. Lindsay, 2006: The influence of sea ice on ocean heat uptake in response to increasing CO2. J. Climate, 19, 2437–2450.
Cavalieri, D. J., and C. L. Parkinson, 2008: Antarctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2006. J. Geophys. Res., 113, C07004, doi:10.1029/2007JC004564.
Dalan, F., P. H. Stone, and A. P. Sokolov, 2005: Sensitivity of the ocean’s climate to diapycnal diffusivity in an EMIC. Part II: Global warming scenario. J. Climate, 18, 2482–2496.
Fyfe, J. C., O. A. Saenko, K. Zickfeld, M. Eby, and A. J. Weaver, 2007: The role of poleward intensifying winds on Southern Ocean warming. J. Climate, 20, 5391–5400.
Gent, P. R., F. O. Bryan, G. Danabasoglu, K. Lindsay, D. Tsumune, M. W. Hecht, and S. C. Doney, 2006: Ocean chlorofluorocarbon and heat uptake during the twentieth century in the CCSM3. J. Climate, 19, 2366–2381.
Gregory, J. M., 2000: Vertical heat transport in the ocean and their effect on time-dependent climate change. Climate Dyn., 16, 501–515.
Holland, M. M., and M. N. Raphael, 2006: Twentieth century simulation of the Southern Hemisphere climate in coupled models. Part II: Sea ice conditions and variability. Climate Dyn., 26, 229–245.
Holland, M. M., C. M. Bitz, E. C. Hunke, W. H. Lipscomb, and J. L. Schramm, 2006: Influence of the sea ice thickness distribution on polar climate in CCSM3. J. Climate, 19, 2398–2414.
Huang, B., P. H. Stone, A. P. Sokolov, and I. V. Kamenkovich, 2003: The deep-ocean heat uptake in transient climate change. J. Climate, 16, 1352–1363.
Johnson, G. C., S. G. Purkey, and J. L. Bullister, 2008: Warming and freshening in the abyssal southeastern Indian Ocean. J. Climate, 21, 5351–5363.
Liu, J., and J. A. Curry, 2010: Accelerated warming of the Southern Ocean and its impacts on the hydrological cycle and sea ice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 14 987–14 992.
Meehl, G. A., and Coauthors, 2006: Climate change projections for the twenty-first century and climate change commitment in the CCSM3. J. Climate, 19, 2597–2616.
Russell, J. L., K. W. Dixon, A. Gnanadesikan, R. J. Stouffer, and J. R. Toggweiler, 2006: The Southern Hemisphere westerlies in a warming world: Propping open the door to the deep ocean. J. Climate, 19, 6382–6390.
Sexton, D. M. H., 2001: The effect of stratospheric ozone depletion on the phase of the Antarctic Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3697–3700.
Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, M. Marquis, K. Averyt, M. M. B. Tignor, H. L. Miller Jr., and Z. Chen, Eds., 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, 996 pp.
Steig, E. J., D. P. Schneider, S. D. Rutherford, M. E. Mann, J. C. Comiso, and D. T. Shindell, 2009: Warming of the Antarctic ice-sheet surface since the 1957 International Geophysical Year. Nature, 457, 459–462.
Thompson, W. J., M. P. Baldwin, and S. Solomon, 2005: Stratosphere–troposphere coupling in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 708–715.