The study is supported by the NOAA Office of Climate Observations (OCO) and the WHOI Arctic Climate Initiative. X. Song acknowledges the support from the China Scholarship Council, National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (40930844, 40976004, and 40921004) and the Ministry of Education’s 111 Project (B07036). The WHOI Academic Programs Office is acknowledged for hosting X. Song as a visiting student for two years. We thank X. Jin for providing monthly OAFlux datasets for the study, and Shirley Cabral McDonald for editorial assistance with this manuscript. Two anonymous reviewers are acknowledged for their constructive and valuable comments. OAFlux datasets are available from the project website http://oaflux.whoi.edu/. NCEP–DOE 2 reanalysis data are provided by NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, from their website at http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/.
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