We appreciate Prof. Taro Matsuno of the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Dr. Toshiro Inoue of the Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, the University of Tokyo, and Drs. Sin-ichi Iga and Tatsuya Seiki of the Advanced Institute for Computational Science, RIKEN for their valuable discussions about this research. We also thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive and thoughtful comments. This work is partly supported by the Innovation Program of Climate Projection for the 21st Century of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The simulations of this study were performed using the Earth Simulator.
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