This study has been supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (40905044, 41075068), Public Sector (Meteorology) Special Research Foundation (GYHY200906014). Additional support has been provided by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), NASA, and NOAA through their sponsorships to the International Pacific Research Center (IPRC) in the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) at the University of Hawaii at Manoa.
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