We would first like to acknowledge the dedicated effort of all the scientists and software engineers who contributed to the development of the CCSM4. We also thank three anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments on an earlier version of this paper. This work was supported by the NOAA Climate Program Office under Climate Variability and Predictability Program Grant NA09OAR4310163, by the Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research, U.S. Department of Energy, Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC02-97ER62402, and by the National Science Foundation through its sponsorship of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. This research used computing resources provided by the NCAR Computational and Information Systems Laboratory and by the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.
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Note that here the term sample refers to the collection of start dates that can be included for a given τ. Since there are 10 members per start date, multiply by 10 to get the total number of integrations included in the diτ computation.
All heat content anomalies are relative to a 1957–90 climatology that is computed separately for each individual dataset.
For the heat budget analysis, the climatological period is chosen to be 1961–2007 because this is the period used for defining diτ. With this choice, the climatological budget computed across the DP ensembles matches that computed from CORE-IA.