JEK thanks Brian Medeiros, Karen Shell, Karl Taylor, Jack Chen, and Ben Sanderson for scientific discussions that improved this manuscript, Gokhan Danabasoglu for running the CCSM4 simulations, and Cecile Hannay for running the CAM5 simulations. This work was funded by the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) through NCAR, NSF Grant ARC-0909313 and by NASA Grant 08-MAP-117. The authors also acknowledge high-performance computing support provided by NCAR’s Computational and Information Systems Laboratory, sponsored by NSF.
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