The Hadley Centre is thanked for providing HADSLP2 data, and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts is acknowledged for provision of the ERA-40 data. RLF acknowledges support from NSF OPP Grant ANT-0944168. JMJ thanks Tricia Muldoon and Graham Simpkins for help with collating the station data. JR is supported through contract C01 × 0701 with the NZ Ministry for Research and Innovation. All authors acknowledge the thorough comments from three anonymous reviewers that helped to tighten the text in many places and clarify our main points.
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