The authors thank the Texas Advanced Computing Center for providing computer resources and technical support. NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data were obtained from the Research Data Archive (http://dss.ucar.edu/datasets/ds090.0/), which is maintained by the Computational and Information Systems Laboratory (CISL) at NCAR. Financial support was provided by NASA (Grant NNX11AE42G), “National Basic Research Program of China” Project 2011CB952004, National Natural Science Foundation of China General Program (Grant 40905042), and KAUST.
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