This research was supported by one grant (to SUNYA) from the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy; one grant (2010CB950100) from China Global Change Research Program; two grants (40905045 and 41071029) to NUIST from the Natural Science Foundation of China; a project funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD); and one grant (IAP09312) from the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. GZ was a visiting scientist (at SUNYA) under the joint agreement on “Climate Science” between the U.S. Department of Energy and the China Ministry of Sciences and Technology. We thank the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive suggestions that have improved our manuscript.
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