This research was jointly funded by the National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (Grant 41105037), the Fund Project of Zhejiang Provincial Department of Education (Grant Y200907077), and by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant 2012XZZX012). Lin is partly supported by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). Lee and Wang were supported by APEC Climate Center (APCC) international research project (CliPAS) and by IPRC, which is in part supported by JAMSTEC, NOAA, and NASA. We acknowledge contributions from all CliPAS team members. We are grateful to the reviewers for their helpful suggestions on improving our paper.
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