We are grateful to Mark Guishard for his insights on the contrasts between North and South Atlantic STs. We thank Bob Hart for his help in developing and consulting on the analysis codes and Justin Arnott for providing the gale radius code. Chuck Pavloski and Chad Bahrmann provided excellent programming assistance and scientific database management. Helpful comments from three anonymous reviewers greatly improved the discussion. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant ATM-0735973.
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Before 2002, the GFS global model was known as the AVN. For simplicity, the model is referred to as GFS here regardless of the year under consideration.
330 K is typically around 500 hPa in our region of interest.