NCEP reanalysis and NOAA_OI_SST_V2 data were provided by the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, from their website (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/). NOAA/NCEP/CPC global daily outgoing longwave radiation, GPCP, and CMAP precipitation datasets were obtained from the IRI data library. The authors thank Charles Jones, two anonymous reviewers, and editor Renguang Wu for valuable comments. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants 0811099, EAR 0811099, and 0909272 and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under Grant NA08OAR4310592.
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