We first thank Jan Dutton for encouraging us to revisit this problem. We thank Casey Webster for many discussions on these analyses and Holly Hamilton for her assistance with the figures. We are grateful to the individuals from each of the modeling agencies who assisted us in obtaining the GCM runs analyzed here. Chuck Pavloski and Chad Bahrmann provided excellent programming assistance and scientific database management. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant ATM-0735973.
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The final CO2 concentration for each AOGCM was 4 times its initial value, and since the models began with varied CO2 concentrations but increased at 1% yr−1, “quadruple CO2” occurred in all cases at simulation year 140 and spanned the range 1144–1416 ppmv for the AOGCMs examined here (Table 1). The choice of “standard” values for the analyses at 1 × CO2 and 2 × CO2 concentrations allows for direct comparison with Dutton et al. (2000). Use of the individual model 4 × CO2 concentrations captures the most extreme forcing for each model simulation examined.