We thank Jacques Derome for helpful discussion in the course of this research and the anonymous reviewers for helpful comments that improved this manuscript. We also thank the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) for collecting and archiving the IPCC/AR4 model data, the JSC/CLIVAR Working Groups on Coupled Modeling (WGCM) and their Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) and Climate Simulation Panel for organizing the model data analysis activity, and the IPCC WG1 TSU for technical support. The IPCC Data Archive at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is supported by the Office of Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy. This study is funded by the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) grant under Project PE 11010. The work by A.P. is in part supported by the Global Environmental and Climate Change Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. A.P. is also grateful of the support of the Stephen and Anastasia Mysak Graduate Fellowship in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, during the course of this research.
Adler, R., and Coauthors, 2003: The version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–present). J. Hydrometeor., 4, 1147–1167.
Arblaster, J., , and G. Meehl, 2006: Contributions of external forcings to Southern Annular Mode trends. J. Climate, 19, 2896–2905.
Austin, J., and Coauthors, 2010: Decline and recovery of total column ozone using a multimodel time series analysis. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D00M10, doi:10.1029/2010JD013857.
Barnes, E., , and D. Hartmann, 2010: Testing a theory for the effect of latitude on the persistence of eddy-driven jets using CMIP3 simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L15801, doi:10.1029/2010GL044144.
Böning, C., , A. Dispert, , M. Visbeck, , S. Rintoul, , and F. Schwarzkopf, 2008: The response of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to recent climate change. Nat. Geosci., 1, 864–869, doi:10.1038/ngeo362.
Cai, W., , P. Whetton, , and D. Karoly, 2003: The response of the Antarctic Oscillation to increasing and stabilized atmospheric CO2. J. Climate, 16, 1525–1538.
Emori, S., , and S. Brown, 2005: Dynamic and thermodynamic changes in mean and extreme precipitation under changed climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L17706, doi:10.1029/2005GL023272.
ETCCDI/CRD, cited 2009: Climate change indices: Definitions of the 27 core indices. CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices. [Available online at http://cccma.seos.uvic.ca/ETCCDMI.]
Fyfe, J., , G. Boer, , and G. Flato, 1999: The Arctic and Antarctic Oscillations and their projected changes under global warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1601–1604.
Gillett, N., , T. Kell, , and P. Jones, 2006: Regional climate impacts of the Southern Annular Mode. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L23704, doi:10.1029/2006GL027721.
Kang, S., , L. Polvani, , J. C. Fyfe, , and M. Sigmond, 2012: Impact of Polar ozone depletion on subtropical precipitation. Science, 332, 951–954, doi:10.1126/science.1202131.
Kushner, P., , I. Held, , and T. Delworth, 2001: Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation response to global warming. J. Climate, 14, 2238–2249.
McLandress, C., , T. Shepherd, , J. Scinocca, , D. Plummer, , M. Sigmond, , A. Jonsson, , and M. Reader, 2011: Separating the dynamical effects of climate change and ozone depletion. Part II: Southern Hemisphere troposphere. J. Climate, 24, 1850–1868.
Meehl, G. A., , C. Covey, , T. Delworth, , M. Latif, , B. McAvaney, , J. F. B. Mitchell, , R. J. Stouffer, , and K. E. Taylor, 2007: The WCRP CMIP3 multimodel dataset. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 1383–1394.
Miller, R., , G. Schmidt, , and D. Shindell, 2006: Forced annular variations in the 20th century intergovernmental panel on climate change fourth assessment report models. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D18101, doi:10.1029/2005JD006323.
O’Gorman, P., , and T. Schneider, 2009: The physical basis for increases in precipitation extremes in simulations of 21st-century climate change. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 106, 14 773–14 777, doi:10.1073/pnas.0907610106.
Perlwitz, J., , S. Pawson, , R. Fogt, , J. Nielson, , and W. Neff, 2008: Impact of stratospheric ozone hole recovery on Antarctic climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L08714, doi:10.1029/2008GL033317.
Polvani, L., , D. Waugh, , G. Correa, , and S.-W. Son, 2011: Stratospheric ozone depletion: The main driver of 20th century atmospheric changes in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Climate, 24, 795–812.
Randall, D. A., and Coauthors, 2007: Climate models and their evaluation. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, S. Solomon et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 589–662.
Seidel, D., , Q. Fu, , W. Randall, , and T. Reichler, 2008: Widening of the tropical belt in a changing climate. Nat. Geosci., 1, 21–24, doi:10.1038/ngeo.2007.38.
Shindell, D., , and G. Schmidt, 2004: Southern Hemisphere climate responses to ozone changes and greenhouse gas increases. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18209, doi:10.1029/2004GL020724.
Son, S.-W., and Coauthors, 2008: The impact of stratospheric ozone recovery on the Southern Hemisphere westerly jet. Science, 320, 1486–1489, doi:10.1126/science.1155939.
Son, S.-W., , N. Tandon, , M. Lorenzo, , and D. Waugh, 2009: Ozone hole and Southern Hemisphere climate change. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L15705, doi:10.1029/2009GL038671.
Son, S.-W., and Coauthors, 2010: Impact of stratospheric ozone on Southern Hemisphere circulation change: A multimodel assessment. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D00M07, doi:10.1029/2010JD014271.
Wong, A., , N. Bindoff, , and J. Church, 1999: Large-scale freshening of intermediate waters in the Pacific and Indian oceans. Nature, 400, 440–443.
Yin, J., 2005: A consistent poleward shift of the storm tracks in simulations of 21st century climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L18701, doi:10.1029/2005GL023684.
Yu, L., , X. Jin, , and R. Weller, 2008: Multidecade global flux datasets from the Objectively Analyzed Air–Sea Fluxes (OAFlux) project: Latent and sensible heat fluxes, ocean evaporation, and related surface meteorological variables. OAFlux Project Tech. Rep. OA-2008-01, 64 pp. [Available online at http://oaflux.whoi.edu/documents.html.]
Flexible Global Ocean–Atmosphere–Land System Model gridpoint version 1.0 (FGOALS1.0g) [Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), China] is discarded as twentieth-century precipitation in the high-latitude region is found to be unreasonably higher than observations and all other models. Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Model E-R (GISS-ER) (NASA, United States) is discarded as 1971–99 daily precipitation appears to be erroneous across the extent of the SH.
Certain CMIP3 models prescribed ozone depletion in the twentieth century but did not prescribe ozone recovery in the twenty-first century; however, for other reasons, such models were not included in this study.