We thank Jacques Derome for helpful discussion in the course of this research and the anonymous reviewers for helpful comments that improved this manuscript. We also thank the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) for collecting and archiving the IPCC/AR4 model data, the JSC/CLIVAR Working Groups on Coupled Modeling (WGCM) and their Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) and Climate Simulation Panel for organizing the model data analysis activity, and the IPCC WG1 TSU for technical support. The IPCC Data Archive at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is supported by the Office of Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy. This study is funded by the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) grant under Project PE 11010. The work by A.P. is in part supported by the Global Environmental and Climate Change Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. A.P. is also grateful of the support of the Stephen and Anastasia Mysak Graduate Fellowship in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, during the course of this research.
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Flexible Global Ocean–Atmosphere–Land System Model gridpoint version 1.0 (FGOALS1.0g) [Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), China] is discarded as twentieth-century precipitation in the high-latitude region is found to be unreasonably higher than observations and all other models. Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Model E-R (GISS-ER) (NASA, United States) is discarded as 1971–99 daily precipitation appears to be erroneous across the extent of the SH.
Certain CMIP3 models prescribed ozone depletion in the twentieth century but did not prescribe ozone recovery in the twenty-first century; however, for other reasons, such models were not included in this study.