We thank Dorian Abbot and Tim Cronin for helpful discussions and Yohai Kaspi for providing an updated postprocessing code. This work was supported in part by the federal, industrial, and foundation sponsors of the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change and by NSF grant AGS-1148594.
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Joshi et al. (2008) do not assume that mean lapse rates are moist adiabatic over land and ocean in this sense, but instead give an illustrative example in which the lower-tropospheric lapse rate is a weighted average of dry and saturated moist adiabatic lapse rates, with weightings depending on relative humidity.
We calculate θe using Eq. (9.40) from Holton (2004), with the temperature at the LCL evaluated using Eq. (22) from Bolton (1980). It will later be important that the θe used is consistent with the convection scheme in the idealized GCM. We tested this by calculating the land–ocean surface air temperature contrast TL − TO implied by (1) using two different means of calculating θe: first, using the θe formula mentioned above, and second, by lifting a surface air parcel pseudoadiabatically to the top pressure level of the GCM (at which essentially all water has been removed from the parcel) using the saturated moist adiabatic lapse rate that is incorporated in the GCM (Appendix D.2 of Holton 2004) and then returning to the surface along a dry adiabat. For example, based on a land surface relative humidity of 40%, an ocean surface relative humidity of 80%, and an ocean surface air temperature of 290 K, the land–ocean temperature contrast was approximately 6 K and the difference between the two estimates described above was 0.25 K. Thus, we conclude that the formula used for θe is adequate for our study.
There are nine simulations for each of the subtropical and midlatitude zonal land bands and the subtropical continent (α values of 0.2, 0.4, 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0).
Simulations with β values of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9 are performed for both subtropical (20°–40°N) and midlatitude (45°–65°N) zonal land bands.
Simulations are performed with μ values of 0.4, 0.7, 1, 1.5, and 2.