ECMWF ERA-Interim data used in this study/project have been provided by ECMWF/have been obtained from the ECMWF data server. This work was supported by the NOAA Global Change Postdoctoral Fellowship. We thank Dargan Frierson for providing the GFDL shortwave heating fields and Michael Previdi for the use of his radiative kernels. We thank Kevin Trenberth and three anonymous reviews for their comments.
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The shortwave atmospheric heating is not readily available in the CMIP3 archive.
On the equatorward side of heat transport maximum (between 25° and 40°N), the meridional heat transport divergence is in phase with the seasonal insolation and the heat transport amplifies the seasonal cycle. This effect is nonlocal; more energy is exported to the high latitudes in the cold season leading to a cooling of the subtropical atmosphere in the cold season.
The temperature response T of a system that is forced at angular frequency f satisfies the equation
We did not analyze the change in the vertical distribution of shortwave radiative heating in the other CMIP3 models because these fields are not available in the CMIP3 archive. Given the robust nature of the humidity response to increasing CO2, however, we anticipate that the change in the vertical structure of shortwave atmospheric heating in the other CMIP3 models will be similar to that shown in the left panel of Figure 10.