This research is supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (Lin). Support for S. A. Klein and S. Xie was provided by the Atmospheric System Research and Regional and Global Climate Modeling Programs of the Office of Science at the U.S. Department of Energy. Their contribution to this work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. We are grateful to Dr. Waliser for providing us with the ice retrievals from CloudSat. We thank Hiram Levy II and Huan Guo for their comments on the manuscript. We also acknowledge the three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments, which significantly improved the organization and clarity of the paper.
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