The authors thank D. B. Stephenson for the insightful discussions and two anonymous reviewers, whose comments helped to improve the paper. We acknowledge the World Climate Research Programme's Working Group on Coupled Modelling, which is responsible for CMIP, and we thank the climate modeling groups (listed in Table 1 of this paper) for producing and making available their model output. For CMIP, the U.S. Department of Energy's Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison provides coordinating support and led development of software infrastructure in partnership with the Global Organisation for Earth System Science Portals. This study is part of the Testing and Evaluating Model Simulations of European Storms (TEMPEST) project, which is funded by NERC.
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