We thank Andrew Dowdy and Xingbao Wang for their valuable insight. We acknowledge the Pacific Climate Change and Science Program (PCCSP) project for supporting this work. PCCSP is funded by AusAID, in collaboration with the Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, and delivered by the Bureau of Meteorology and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).
Bengtsson, L., , H. Bottger, , and M. Kanamitsu, 1982: Simulation of hurricane-type vortices in a general circulation model. Tellus, 34, 440–457.
Bengtsson, L., , K. I. Hodges, , and M. Esch, 2007: Tropical cyclones in a T159 resolution global climate model: Comparison with observations and re-analyses. Tellus, 59A, 396–416.
Camargo, S. J., , and S. E. Zebiak, 2002: Improving the detection and tracking of tropical storms in atmospheric general circulation models. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 1152–1162.
Camargo, S. J., , A. G. Barnston, , and S. E. Zebiak, 2005: A statistical assessment of tropical cyclone activity in atmospheric general circulation models. Tellus, 57A, 589–604.
Camargo, S. J., , A. H. Sobel, , A. G. Barnston, , and J. K. Philip, 2010: The influence of natural climate variability on tropical cyclones, and seasonal forecasts of tropical cyclone activity. Global Perspectives on Tropical Cyclones: From Science to Mitigation, J. C. L. Chan and J. D. Kepert, Eds., World Scientific, 325–360.
Chan, J. C. L., 2005: Interannual and interdecadal variations of tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 89, 143–152.
Chand, S. S., , and K. J. E. Walsh, 2009: Tropical cyclone activity in the Fiji region: Spatial patterns and relationship to large-scale circulation. J. Climate, 22, 3877–3893.
Chauvin, F., , J.-F. Royer, , and M. Déqué, 2006: Response of hurricane-type vortices to global warming as simulated by ARPEGE-Climat at high resolution. Climate Dyn., 27, 377–399.
Emanuel, K., , R. Sundararajan, , and J. Williams, 2008: Hurricanes and global warming: Results from downscaling IPCC AR4 simulations. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 89, 347–367.
Guilyardi, E., , A. Wittenberg, , A. Fedorov, , M. Collins, , C. Wang, , A. Capotondi, , G. J. van Oldenborgh, , and T. Stockdale, 2009: Understanding El Niño in ocean–atmosphere general circulation models. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90, 325–340.
Knapp, K. R., , M. C. Kruk, , D. H. Levinson, , H. J. Diamond, , and C. J. Neumann, 2010: The International Best Track Archieve for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) unifying tropical cyclone data. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91, 363–376.
Manabe, S., , J. L. Holloway, , and H. M. Stone, 1970: Tropical circulation in a time-integration of a global model of the atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 27, 580–613.
Meehl, G. A., , C. Covey, , T. Delworth, , M. Latif, , B. McAvaney, , J. F. B. Mitchell, , R. J. Stouffer, , and K. E. Taylor, 2007: The WCRP CMIP3 multi-model dataset: A new era in climate change research. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 1383–1394.
Murakami, H., , and B. Wang, 2010: Future change of North Atlantic tropical cyclone tracks: Projection by a 20-km-mesh global atmospheric model. J. Climate, 23, 2699–2721.
Murakami, H., , B. Wang, , and A. Kitoh, 2011: Future change of western North Pacific typhoons: Projections by a 20-km-mesh global atmospheric model. J. Climate, 24, 1154–1169.
Nakicenovic, N., and Coauthors, 2000: IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios. Cambridge University Press, 599 pp.
Ramsay, H. A., , L. M. Leslie, , P. J. Lamb, , M. B. Richman, , and M. Leplastrier, 2008: Interannual variability of tropical cyclones in the Australian region: Role of large-scale environment. J. Climate, 21, 1083–1103.
Strachan, J., , P. L. Vidale, , K. Hodges, , M. Roberts, , and M.-E. Demory, 2013: Investigating global tropical cyclone activity with a hierarchy of AGCMs: The role of model resolution. J. Climate, 26, 133–152.
Thorncroft, C., , and K. Hodges, 2001: African easterly wave variability and its relationship to Atlantic tropical cyclone activity. J. Climate, 14, 1166–1179.
Tory, K. J., , S. S. Chand, , R. A. Dare, , and J. L. McBride, 2013a: The development and assessment of a model-, grid- and basin-independent tropical cyclone detection scheme. J. Climate, 26, 5493–5507.
Tory, K. J., , R. A. Dare, , N. E. Davidson, , J. L. McBride, , and S. S. Chand, 2013b: The importance of low-deformation vorticity in tropical cyclone formation. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2115–2132, doi:10.5194/acp-13-2115-2013.
Vitart, F., , J. L. Anderson, , and W. F. Stern, 1997: Simulation of interannual variability of tropical storm frequency in an ensemble of GCM integrations. J. Climate, 10, 745–760.
Walsh, K., , M. Fiorino, , C. W. Landsea, , and K. L. McInnes, 2007: Objectively determined resolution-dependent threshold criteria for the detection of tropical cyclones in climate models and reanalyses. J. Climate, 20, 2307–2314.
Walsh, K., , S. Lavender, , H. Murakami, , E. Scoccimarro, , L.-P. Caron, , and M. Ghantous, 2010: The Tropical Cyclone Climate Model Intercomparison Project. Hurricanes and Climate Change, Vol. 2, J. B. Elsner et al., Eds., Springer, 1–24.
Walsh, K., , S. Lavender, , E. Scoccimarro, , and H. Murakami, 2013: Resolution dependence of tropical cyclone formation in CMIP3 and finer resolution models. Climate Dyn., 40, 585–599, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1298-z.
Wu, G., , and N.-C. Lau, 1992: A GCM simulation of the relationship between tropical-storm formation and ENSO. Mon. Wea. Rev., 120, 958–977.
Zhao, M., , M. I. Held, , S.-J. Lin, , and G. A. Vecchi, 2009: Simulations of global hurricane climatology, internannual variability, and response to global warming using a 50-km resolution GCM. J. Climate, 22, 6653–6678.
While the technique can be applied objectively, subjectivity is unavoidable in the design, and subjective adjustments have been made in its application [as discussed in the introduction of Tory et al. (2013)].
The data are daily averaged, which results in smeared circulations elongated in the direction of storm motion.
It was necessary to use relative humidity and specific humidity on the 925-hPa level, instead of 950 hPa because that level was not available in the daily CMIP3 pressure-level data.