This work was supported in part by the NOAA Climate Program Office Modeling, Analysis, Predictions and Projections (MAPP) Program under Grant NA11OAR4310099 as part of the CMIP5 Task Force and National Science Foundation Grant AGS-1102838. We acknowledge the World Climate Research Programme's Working Group on Coupled Modelling, which is responsible for CMIP, and we thank the climate modeling groups (listed in Table A1 of this paper) for producing and making available their model output. For CMIP the U.S. Department of Energy's Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison provides coordinating support and led development of software infrastructure in partnership with the Global Organization for Earth System Science Portals. GPCP data were provided by the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA, from their Web site at http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd.
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