We acknowledge the modeling groups, the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI), and the WCRP's Working Group on Coupled Modelling (WGCM) for their roles in making available the WCRP CMIP5 multimodel dataset. Support of this dataset is provided by the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy. The U.S. authors acknowledge the support of NOAA Climate Program Office “Modeling, Analysis, Predictions and Projections” (MAPP Grant NA11OAR4310094) Program as part of the CMIP5 Task Force. This research is also supported partly by the CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Program for Creative Research Teams (KZZD-EW-TZ-03) and WKC foundation. We are thankful to two anonymous reviewers for their constructive and insightful suggestions. We are thankful to the two anonymous reviewers whose constructive comments strengthened this paper.
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Most studies of GCM intercomparison use mean surface air temperature, masking the difference in maximum and minimum temperatures.
The extent of the member spread may have been underestimated in CMIP5 experiments since the great majority of the models used varying start time only, not the perturbation method.