We acknowledge the World Climate Research Programme’s Working Group on Coupled Modelling, which is responsible for CMIP, and we thank the climate modeling groups (listed in Table 1 of this paper) for producing and making available their model output. For CMIP, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison provides coordinating support and led development of software infrastructure in partnership with the Global Organization for Earth System Science Portals. We are also grateful to Richard Neale for providing valuable information about the CCSM4 model output availability and for useful discussions. Finally, we wish to thank two anonymous reviewers. They have provided very constructive reviews, which have been essential to substantially improving the manuscript.
Anstey, J. A., and Coauthors, 2013: Multi-model analysis of Northern Hemisphere winter blocking: Model biases and the role of resolution. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 3956–3971, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50231.
Barnes, E. A., , J. Slingo, , and T. Woollings, 2012: A methodology for the comparison of blocking climatologies across indices, models and climate scenarios. Climate Dyn., 38, 2467–2481.
Barriopedro, D., , R. Garcýa-Herrera, , and R. M. Trigo, 2010a: Application of blocking diagnosis methods to general circulation models. Part I: A novel detection scheme. Climate Dyn., 35, 1373–1391.
Barriopedro, D., , R. Garcýa-Herrera, , J. F. González-Rouco, , and R. M. Trigo, 2010b: Application of blocking diagnosis methods to general circulation models. Part II: Model simulations. Climate Dyn., 35, 1393–1409, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0766-6.
Barriopedro, D., , E. M. Fischer, , J. Luterbacher, , R. M. Trigo, , and R. Garcýa-Herrera, 2011: The hot summer of 2010: Redrawing the temperature record map of Europe. Science, 332, 220–224.
Bates, G. T., , and G. A. Meehl, 1986: The effect of CO2 concentration on the frequency of blocking in a general circulation model coupled to a simple mixed layer ocean model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 687–701.
Berckmans, J., , and T. Woollings, , M.-E. Demory, , P.-L. Vidale, , and M. Roberts, 2013: Atmospheric blocking in a high resolution climate model: Influences of mean state, orography and eddy forcing. Atmos. Sci. Lett., 14, 34–40.
Berggren, R., , B. Bolin, , and C. G. Rossby, 1949: An aerological study of zonal motion, its perturbations and break-down. Tellus, 1, 14–37.
Berrisford, P., , B. J. Hoskins, , and E. Tyrlis, 2007: Blocking and Rossby wave breaking on the dynamical tropopause in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 2881–2898.
Buehler, T., , C. C. Raible, , and T. F. Stocker, 2011: The relationship of winter season North Atlantic blocking frequencies to extreme cold or dry spells in the ERA-40. Tellus, 63A, 212–222.
Croci-Maspoli, M., , and H. C. Davies, 2009: Key dynamical features of the 2005/06 European winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 664–678.
Croci-Maspoli, M., , C. Schwierz, , and H. C. Davies, 2007: A multifaceted climatology of atmospheric blocking and its recent linear trend. J. Climate, 20, 633–649.
D’Andrea, F., and Coauthors, 1998: Northern Hemisphere atmospheric blocking as simulated by 15 atmospheric general circulation models in the period 1979–1988. Climate Dyn., 14, 385–407.
Davini, P., , C. Cagnazzo, , S. Gualdi, , and A. Navarra, 2012: Bidimensional diagnostics, variability, and trends of Northern Hemisphere blocking. J. Climate, 25, 6496–6509.
de Vries, H., , T. Woollings, , J. Anstey, , R. J. Haarsma, , and W. Hazeleger, 2013: Atmospheric blocking and its relation to jet changes in a future climate. Climate Dyn., doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1699-7, in press.
Dole, R., and Coauthors, 2011: Was there a basis for anticipating the 2010 Russian heat wave? Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L06702, doi:10.1029/2010GL046582.
Hoskins, B. J., 2013: The potential for skill across the range of the seamless weather-climate prediction problem: A stimulus for our science. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 139, 573–584, doi:10.1002/qj.1991.
Hoskins, B. J., , M. E. McIntyre, , and A. W. Robertson, 1985: On the use and significance of isentropic potential vorticity maps. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 111, 877–946.
Jung, T., and Coauthors, 2010: The ECMWF model climate: Recent progress through improved physical parametrizations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 136, 1145–1160.
Jung, T., and Coauthors, 2012: High-resolution global climate simulations with the ECMWF model in Project Athena: Experimental design, model climate, and seasonal forecast skill. J. Climate, 25, 3155–3172.
Karpechko, A. Y., , and E. Manzini, 2012: Stratospheric influence on tropospheric climate change in the Northern Hemisphere. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D05133, doi:10.1029/2011JD017036.
Lupo, A. R., , R. J. Oglesby, , and I. I. Mokhov, 1997: Climatological features of blocking anticyclones: A study of Northern Hemisphere CCM1 model blocking events in present-day and double CO2 concentration atmospheres. Climate Dyn., 13, 181–195.
Masato, G., , B. J. Hoskins, , and T. J. Woollings, 2012: Wave-breaking characteristics of midlatitude blocking. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 138, 1285–1296, doi:10.1002/qj.990.
Masato, G., , B. J. Hoskins, , and T. J. Woollings, 2013: Wave-breaking characteristics of Northern Hemisphere winter blocking: A two-dimensional approach. J. Climate, 26, 4535–4549.
Matsueda, M., , R. Mizuta, , and S. Kusunoki, 2009: Future change in wintertime atmospheric blocking simulated using a 20-km-mesh atmospheric global circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D12114, doi:10.1029/2009JD011919.
Matsueda, M., , H. Endo, , and R. Mizuta, 2010: Future change in Southern Hemisphere summertime and wintertime atmospheric blockings simulated using a 20-km-mesh AGCM. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L02803, doi:10.1029/2009GL041758.
Pelly, J. L., , and B. J. Hoskins, 2003b: How well does the ECMWF ensemble prediction system predict blocking? Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129, 1683–1702.
Rex, D. F., 1950: Blocking action in the middle troposphere and its effects upon regional climate. II. The climatology of blocking action. Tellus, 2, 275–301.
Scaife, A., , T. J. Woollings, , J. Knight, , G. Martin, , and T. Hinton, 2010: Atmospheric blocking and mean biases in climate models. J. Climate, 23, 6143–6152.
Scaife, A., and Coauthors, 2011: Improved Atlantic winter blocking in a climate model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L23703, doi:10.1029/2011GL049573.
Sillmann, J., , and M. Croci-Maspoli, 2009: Present and future atmospheric blocking and its impact on European mean and extreme climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L10702, doi:10.1029/2009GL038259.
Taylor, K., , R. Stouffer, , and G. Meehl, 2012: An overview of CMIP5 and the experiment design. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 485–498.
Trigo, R. M., , I. F. Trigo, , and C. C. DaCamara, 2004: Climate impact of the European winter blocking episodes from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis. Climate Dyn., 23, 17–28.
Tyrlis, E., , and B. J. Hoskins, 2008a: Aspects of the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric blocking climatology. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 1638–1652.
Vial, J., , and T. J. Osborn, 2012: Assessment of atmosphere-ocean general circulation model simulations of winter northern hemisphere atmospheric blocking. Climate Dyn., 39, 95–112, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1177-z.
Woollings, T., , and M. Blackburn, 2012: The North Atlantic jet stream under climate change and its relation to the NAO and EA patterns. J. Climate, 25, 886–902.
Woollings, T., , B. J. Hoskins, , M. Blackburn, , and P. Berrisford, 2008: A new Rossby wave-breaking interpretation of the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 609–626.
MOHC returns a much higher blocking frequency for Z500, in particular over the midlatitudes. This is translated into a strongly reduced bias at this level if compared to Z250, in particular for the European winter region.