This research is sponsored by the Joint Project of the Natural Science Foundation of China and Yunnan Province U0833602, the National Nature Science Foundation of China Project 41175079, and the City University of Hong Kong Strategic Research Grants 7002917. We appreciate the constructive comments from three anonymous reviewers.
Bao, M., , and R. H. Huang, 2006: Characteristics of the interdecadal variations of heavy rain over China in the last 40 years (in Chinese). Chin. J. Atmos. Sci., 30, 1057–1067.
Benton, G. S., , R. T. Blackburn, , and V. O. Snead, 1950: The role of the atmosphere in the hydrologic cycle. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 31, 61–73.
Budyko, M. I., 1974: Climate and Life. Internal Geophysics Series, Vol. 18, Academic, 508 pp.
Chan, J. C. L., , and W. Zhou, 2005: PDO, ENSO and the early summer monsoon rainfall over south China. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L08810, doi:10.1029/2004GL022015.
Chen, H. P., , J. Q. Sun, , X. L. Chen, , and W. Zhou, 2012: CGCM projections of heavy rainfall events in China. Int. J. Climatol., 32, 441–450.
Dee, D. P., and Coauthors, 2011: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 553–597.
Feng, J., , W. Chen, , C. Y. Tam, , and W. Zhou, 2011: Different impacts of El Niño and El Niño Modoki on China rainfall in the decaying phases. Int. J. Climatol., 31, 2091–2101.
Fovell, R. G., , and M. Y. C. Fovell, 1993: Climate zones of the conterminous United States defined using cluster analysis. J. Climate, 6, 2103–2135.
Gu, W., , C. Y. Li, , W. J. Li, , W. Zhou, , and J. C. L. Chan, 2009a: Interdecadal unstationary relationship between NAO and east China’s summer precipitation patterns. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L13702, doi:10.1029/2009GL038843.
Gu, W., , C. Y. Li, , X. Wang, , W. Zhou, , and W. J. Li, 2009b: Linkage between mei-yu precipitation and North Atlantic SST on the decadal timescale. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 26, 101–108.
Huang, R. H., , Z. Zhang, , and G. Huang, 1998: Characteristics of the water vapor transport in East Asian monsoon region and its difference from that in South Asian monsoon region in summer (in Chinese). Sci. Atmos. Sin., 22, 460–469.
Huang, R. H., , Y. Liu, , L. Wang, , and L. Wang, 2012: Analyses of the causes of severe drought occurring in southwest China from the fall of 2009 to the spring of 2010 (in Chinese). Chin. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 443–457.
Lau, N. C., , and M. J. Nath, 2000: Impact of ENSO on the variability of the Asian–Australian monsoons as simulated in GCM experiments. J. Climate, 13, 4287–4309.
Li, X. Z., , and W. Zhou, 2012: Quasi-4-yr coupling between El Niño–Southern Oscillation and water vapor transport over East Asia–WNP. J. Climate, 25, 5879–5891.
Li, X. Z., , Z. P. Wen, , and W. Zhou, 2011: Long-term change in summer water vapor transport over south China in recent decades. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 89A, 271–282.
Li, X. Z., , Z. P. Wen, , W. Zhou, , and D. X. Wang, 2012: Atmospheric water vapor transport associated with two decadal rainfall shifts over east China. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 90, 587–602.
Lin, A. L., , J. Y. Liang, , C. H. Li, , D. J. Gu, , and B. Zheng, 2007: Monsoon circulation background of ‘0506’ continuous rainstorm in south China. Adv. Water Resour., 18, 424–432.
McKee, T. B., , N. J. Doesken, , and J. Kleist, 1993: The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales. Preprints, Eighth Conf. on Applied Climatology, Anaheim, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 179–184.
Schmitz, J. T., , and S. L. Mullen, 1996: Water vapor transport associated with the summertime North American monsoon as depicted by ECMWF analyses. J. Climate, 9, 1621–1634.
Simmonds, I., , D. H. Bi, , and P. Hope, 1999: Atmospheric water vapor flux and its association with rainfall over China in summer. J. Climate, 12, 1353–1367.
Sun, B., , and H. J. Wang, 2013: Water vapor transport paths and accumulation during widespread snowfall events in northeastern China. J. Climate, 26, 4550–4566.
Tao, S. Y., , and Y. H. Ding, 1981: Observational evidence of the influence of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau on the occurrence of heavy rain and severe convective storms in China. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 62, 23–30.
Tao, S. Y., , and L. X. Chen, 1987: A review of recent research on the East Asian summer monsoon in China. Review of Monsoon Meteorology, C. P. Chang and T. N. Krishnamurti, Eds., Oxford University Press, 60–92.
Tibshirani, R., , G. Walther, , and T. Hastie, 2001: Estimating the number of clusters in a data set via the gap statistic. J. Roy. Stat. Soc., 63, 411–423.
Tong, K., , F. G. Su, , D. Q. Yang, , L. L. Zhang, , and Z. C. Hao, 2013: Tibetan Plateau precipitation as depicted by gauge observations, reanalyses and satellite retrievals. Int. J. Climatol., doi:10.1002/joc.3682, in press.
Trenberth, K. E., , A. Dai, , R. M. Rasmussen, , and D. B. Parsons, 2003: The changing character of precipitation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84, 1205–1217.
Wang, B., , and Y. Q. Li, 2010: Relationship analysis between south branch trough and severe drought of southwest China during autumn and winter 2009/2020 (in Chinese). Plateau Mt. Meteor. Res., 30, 28–37.
Wang, B., , R. G. Wu, , and X. H. Fu, 2000: Pacific–East Asian teleconnection: How does ENSO affect East Asian climate? J. Climate, 13, 1517–1536.
Wang, H. J., , and H. P. Chen, 2012: Climate control for southeastern China moisture and precipitation: Indian or East Asian monsoon? J. Geophys. Res., 117, D12109, doi:10.1029/2012JD017734.
Wang, X., , C. Y. Li, , and W. Zhou, 2006: Interdecadal variation of the relationship between Indian rainfall and SSTA modes in the Indian Ocean. Int. J. Climatol., 26, 595–606.
Xie, Y. B., , and W. J. Dai, 1959: The calculation for some cases of the moisture transport over Yangtze River basin. J. Appl. Meteor. Sci., 13, 67–77.
Yi, L., , and S. Y. Tao, 1997: Role of the standing and the transient eddies in atmospheric water cycle in the Asian monsoon region (in Chinese). Acta Meteor. Sin., 55, 533–544.
Yihui, D., 1994: Monsoons over China. Springer, 432 pp.
Yuan, F., , W. Chen, , and W. Zhou, 2012: Analysis of the role played by circulation in the persistent precipitation over south China in June 2010. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 29, 769–781.
Yuan, Y., , H. Yang, , W. Zhou, , and C. Y. Li, 2008a: Influences of the Indian Ocean dipole on the Asian summer monsoon in the following year. Int. J. Climatol., 28, 1849–1859, doi:10.1002/JOC.1678.
Yuan, Y., , W. Zhou, , J. C. L. Chan, , and C. Y. Li, 2008b: Impacts of the basin-wide Indian Ocean SSTA on the South China Sea summer monsoon onset. Int. J. Climatol., 28, 1579–1587, doi:10.1002/JOC.1671.
Zhang, R. H., 2001: Relations of water vapor transport from Indian monsoon with that over East Asia and the summer rainfall in China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 18, 1005–1017.
Zhang, R. H., , A. Sumi, , and M. Kimoto, 1996: Impact of El Niño on the East Asian monsoon: A diagnostic study of the 86/87 and 91/92 events. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 74, 49–62.
Zhou, T. J., , and R. C. Yu, 2005: Atmospheric water vapor transport associated with typical anomalous summer rainfall patterns in China. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D08104, doi:10.1029/2004JD005413.
Zhou, W., , J. C. L. Chan, , and C. Y. Li, 2005: South China Sea summer monsoon onset in relation to the off-equatorial ITCZ. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 22, 665–676.
Zhou, W., , C. Y. Li, , and J. C. L. Chan, 2006: The interdecadal variations of the summer monsoon rainfall over south China. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 93, 165–175, doi:10.1007/S00703-006-0184-9.
Zhu, Y. L., , H. J. Wang, , W. Zhou, , and J. H. Ma, 2011: Recent changes in the summer precipitation pattern in east China and the background circulation. Climate Dyn., 36, 1463–1473, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0852-9.