The authors wish to thank Prof. Ian Simmonds and Dr. Matthew Wheeler for their valuable suggestions and comments. We are very grateful for constructive comments from three anonymous reviewers, who greatly improved the content of this manuscript. In this study the TRMM 3B42 product was obtained from the TRMM Science Data and Information System (TSDIS), distributed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Distributed Active Archive Centre (DAAC) while ERA-Interim data were obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts.
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