The authors thank Dr. Zhuo Wang at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign for developing an earlier version of the intermediate teleconnection model. This study was supported by Climate Dynamics Program of the National Science Foundation under award AGS-1005599 and by the APEC climate center. Additional support was provided by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) through their sponsorship of research activities at the International Pacific Research Center.
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