TAS is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant AGS-1129519. JP acknowledges support by NOAA’s Climate Program Office. We thank the ECMWF for providing the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset, Dr. Nili Harnik for the use of her quasigeostrophic model and for helpful comments, Dr. Mark Baldwin for his EOF code, and finally to Drs. Limpasuvan and McDaniel for their help with the statistical significance calculations. The authors are grateful to three anonymous reviewers and Dr. Dave Thompson whose comments helped improve the manuscript.
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