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  • View in gallery

    Tropical mean (left) OLR and (right) RSW complete (solid line) and incomplete (dotted line) diurnal sampling time series. The OLR tropical mean time series at 1030 and 2230 LST overpass times are also shown. The deseasonalized, tropical mean complete diurnal sampling time series are computed directly from CERES–Terra SYN Ed2rev1 3-hourly data. The incomplete diurnal sampling times series are computed by first applying the diurnal averaging model at each grid point and then computing the deseasonalized tropical mean.

  • View in gallery

    Tropical OLR 1° × 1° trends in W m−2 yr−1 for (a) full diurnal cycle sampling, (b) Terra sun-synchronous sampling, and (c) difference trends. Only statistically significant difference trends at the 95% confidence level are shown in (c).

  • View in gallery

    Tropical RSW 1° × 1° trends in W m−2 yr−1 for (a) full diurnal cycle sampling, (b) Terra sun-synchronous sampling, and (c) difference trends. Only statistically significant difference trends at the 95% confidence level are shown in (c).

  • View in gallery

    Example application of (1) in March 2000 showing OLRclim(m, h) (dashed line), OLR(y, m, h) (solid line), and OLRclim(m, h) + δOLRshift(y, m) (dotted line). The x axis is time (local solar time) and the y axis is OLR (W m−2).

  • View in gallery

    Tropical contour plots of (a) and (b) expressed as percentages of and (c) (W m−2) for 1° × 1° regions.

  • View in gallery

    As in Fig. 5, but at 10° × 10° spatial scale.

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Impact of Sun-Synchronous Diurnal Sampling on Tropical TOA Flux Interannual Variability and Trends

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  • 1 Climate Science Branch, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia
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Abstract

Satellite observations of the earth’s radiation budget (ERB) are a critical component of the climate observing system. Recent observations have been made from sun-synchronous orbits, which provide excellent spatial coverage with global measurements twice daily but do not resolve the full diurnal cycle. Previous investigations show that significant errors can occur in time-averaged energy budgets from sun-synchronous orbits if diurnal variations are ignored. However, the impact of incomplete diurnal sampling on top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux variability and trends has received less attention. A total of 68 months of 3-hourly tropical outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and reflected shortwave radiation (RSW) fluxes from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) synoptic (SYN) data product is used to examine the impact of incomplete diurnal sampling on TOA flux variability. Tropical OLR and RSW interannual variability and trends derived from sun-synchronous time sampling consistent with the Terra satellite from 2000 to 2005 show no statistically significant differences at the 95% confidence level with those obtained at 3-hourly time sampling at both 1° × 1° and 10° × 10° regional scales, as well as for tropical means. Monthly, 3-hourly OLR composite anomalies are decomposed into diurnally uniform and diurnal cycle shape change contributions to explain the impact of sampling on observed TOA flux variability. Diurnally uniform contributions to OLR variability account for more than 80% of interannual OLR variability at 1° × 1° spatial scales. Diurnal cycle shape variations are most important in equatorial land regions, contributing up to 50% to OLR variability over Africa. At spatial scales of 10° × 10° or larger, OLR variance contributions from diurnal cycle shape changes remain smaller than 20%.

Corresponding author address: Patrick Taylor, NASA Langley Research Center, 21 Langley Blvd., Mail Stop 420, Hampton, VA 23681. E-mail: patrick.c.taylor@nasa.gov

Abstract

Satellite observations of the earth’s radiation budget (ERB) are a critical component of the climate observing system. Recent observations have been made from sun-synchronous orbits, which provide excellent spatial coverage with global measurements twice daily but do not resolve the full diurnal cycle. Previous investigations show that significant errors can occur in time-averaged energy budgets from sun-synchronous orbits if diurnal variations are ignored. However, the impact of incomplete diurnal sampling on top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux variability and trends has received less attention. A total of 68 months of 3-hourly tropical outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and reflected shortwave radiation (RSW) fluxes from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) synoptic (SYN) data product is used to examine the impact of incomplete diurnal sampling on TOA flux variability. Tropical OLR and RSW interannual variability and trends derived from sun-synchronous time sampling consistent with the Terra satellite from 2000 to 2005 show no statistically significant differences at the 95% confidence level with those obtained at 3-hourly time sampling at both 1° × 1° and 10° × 10° regional scales, as well as for tropical means. Monthly, 3-hourly OLR composite anomalies are decomposed into diurnally uniform and diurnal cycle shape change contributions to explain the impact of sampling on observed TOA flux variability. Diurnally uniform contributions to OLR variability account for more than 80% of interannual OLR variability at 1° × 1° spatial scales. Diurnal cycle shape variations are most important in equatorial land regions, contributing up to 50% to OLR variability over Africa. At spatial scales of 10° × 10° or larger, OLR variance contributions from diurnal cycle shape changes remain smaller than 20%.

Corresponding author address: Patrick Taylor, NASA Langley Research Center, 21 Langley Blvd., Mail Stop 420, Hampton, VA 23681. E-mail: patrick.c.taylor@nasa.gov

1. Introduction

The global nature of climate requires that essential climate variables be measured globally and over multiple decades, which in many cases can best be achieved from satellite platforms. It is also well recognized that many climate variables, including temperature, water vapor, clouds, radiation, and convective precipitation, exhibit pronounced diurnal cycle signals in response to diurnal solar forcing (Minnis and Harrison 1984; Hartmann and Recker 1986; Hartmann et al. 1991; Randall et al. 1991; Janowiak et al. 1994; Bergman and Salby 1996; Lin et al. 2000; Soden 2000; Yang and Slingo 2001; Tian et al. 2004; Doelling et al. 2013). An ideal observing system is one that provides continuous, global, well-calibrated measurements at high spatial and temporal resolution. However, owing to the high cost of such a system, tradeoffs are necessary. Instruments onboard sun-synchronous satellites provide twice-daily global coverage but limited diurnal sampling. Diurnal sampling can be enhanced by also utilizing instruments aboard geostationary weather satellites, but these instruments generally lack onboard calibration in the visible channels and can introduce artifacts in the data record owing to changes in satellite position (Evan et al. 2007) and nonlinear response to scene brightness (Doelling et al. 2013).

The importance of diurnal sampling on the earth radiation budget observations was recognized as early as the 1970s (Raschke and Bandeen 1970). More recent studies have quantified the impact of incomplete diurnal sampling under various cloud conditions (Rozendaal et al. 1995; Bergman and Salby 1997; Ellingson and Ba 2003; Lee et al. 2007; Loeb et al. 2009; Doelling et al. 2013). Bergman and Salby (1997) demonstrate that small errors in the diurnal cloud evolution can lead to 5–15 W m−2 and 1–5 W m−2 errors in average top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflected shortwave radiation (RSW) and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) in tropical regions with a robust diurnal cycle in cloudiness (e.g., land convection and marine stratocumulus). Loeb et al. (2009) examine errors in the TOA energy budget from sun-synchronous satellite observations, illustrating up to 30 W m−2 net flux errors in marine stratocumulus and land convective diurnal cycle regions, but the error in the global mean net flux is much smaller (<1 W m−2) because of compensating errors. Recently, the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB; Harries et al. 2005) instrument has been used to elucidate the OLR diurnal cycle over Africa (Nowicki and Merchant 2004; Comer et al. 2007).

While the importance of sampling the diurnal cycle for observing time-averaged quantities is well established, it is less clear what impact limited diurnal sampling has on quantifying variability and change in the earth’s radiation budget. Ultimately, the answer to this question depends upon many factors, including the spatial and temporal scales over which we seek to observe variations/changes in the system and whether the variability occurs uniformly across all local times or exhibits a diurnally asymmetric pattern leading to a change in the shape of the diurnal cycle.

This paper evaluates the impact of sun-synchronous sampling and diurnal cycle variations on TOA flux variability and the effects of incomplete diurnal sampling on trend detection. The analysis is restricted to the tropical domain (30°N–30°S) because this region exhibits significant diurnal cycle amplitude throughout the annual cycle. Furthermore, we focus on interannual variability of monthly mean TOA radiation over 1° × 1° and 10° × 10° latitude–longitude spatial scales, as well as over the entire tropics. In the following, we describe the data and methodology used to address this question (sections 2 and 3), and we present results in section 4. We seek to explain the results through an analysis of OLR diurnal cycle variability in section 4 by decomposing monthly, 3-hourly OLR composite anomalies into diurnally uniform and diurnal cycle shape change components. Section 5 provides a summary of the results and conclusions.

2. Data

The Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) synoptic (SYN) product [CERES–Terra SYN edition 2 revision 1 (Ed2rev1)] contains OLR and RSW fluxes for 68 months: March 2000 through October 2005. These data are available globally at 1° × 1° spatial and 3-hourly temporal resolution; the domain is restricted to the tropics (30°N–30°S). Three-hourly temporal resolution is obtained by combining CERES–Terra 1030 local solar time (LST) and PM-only sun-synchronous observations and geostationary (GEO) satellite radiances. The merging technique involves four steps: 1) calibration of each GEO instrument with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imager data, 2) a narrowband radiance to broadband radiance conversion, 3) integration of GEO broadband radiance to irradiance, and 4) normalization of GEO-derived OLR to observed CERES OLR.

This merging technique consistently combines information from multiple generations of GEO sensors accounting for spectral differences. Doelling et al. 2013 provide a detailed description of the approach used in merging CERES and GEO data to produce GEO enhanced temporal sampling in the SYN data product.

3. Methodology

As the CERES TOA flux record length grows, the dataset becomes increasingly important for analyzing interannual and longer time-scale variability and detecting decadal trends. In such studies, the impact of sun-synchronous sampling on TOA flux variance is most important. The impact of sun-synchronous sampling on TOA flux (OLR, RSW, and net) variability and trend detection is tested by comparing two datasets: 1) full diurnal sampling and 2) incomplete (sun synchronous) diurnal sampling. The CERES–Terra SYN Ed2rev1 dataset possesses 3-hourly temporal resolution and is treated as truth (complete diurnal sampling). The incomplete diurnal sampling dataset is generated by subsampling the CERES–Terra SYN Ed2rev1 using only hours that coincide with Terra overpass times: morning (1030 LST) and evening (2230 LST). This process is used to generate both OLR and RSW regional and tropical monthly mean time series.

A direct comparison of complete and incomplete diurnal sampling datasets requires a diurnal averaging model. Nonzero OLR values are observed at all times of day and sun-synchronous sampling provides two OLR observations daily. Resulting from the sinusoidal nature of the OLR diurnal cycle (Hartmann and Recker 1986; Gruber and Chen 1988; Taylor 2012), a simple linear average of the twice-daily observations OLRdavg provides a reasonable approximation of the daily mean OLR that is better over ocean than over land. However, in the tropics, only a single nonzero RSW observation is obtained from sun-synchronous orbit because of the 12-h separation of local overpasses. A linear regression method is applied in the RSW to map the monthly mean instantaneous flux RSWobs to a monthly mean diurnal average RSWdavg,
e1
Linear regression coefficients a and b are determined for each calendar month at each grid point. This diurnal averaging model has stable coefficients and scales the instantaneous RSWobs to a monthly average value with little effect on the time series variability. The OLR and RSW deseasonalized tropical, monthly mean time series for complete and incomplete diurnal sampling are shown in Fig. 1. The deseasonalized tropical, monthly mean complete diurnal sampling time series are computed directly from CERES–Terra SYN Ed2rev1 3-hourly data. The incomplete diurnal sampling times series are computed by first applying the diurnal averaging model at each grid point and then computing the deseasonalized tropical mean.
Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Tropical mean (left) OLR and (right) RSW complete (solid line) and incomplete (dotted line) diurnal sampling time series. The OLR tropical mean time series at 1030 and 2230 LST overpass times are also shown. The deseasonalized, tropical mean complete diurnal sampling time series are computed directly from CERES–Terra SYN Ed2rev1 3-hourly data. The incomplete diurnal sampling times series are computed by first applying the diurnal averaging model at each grid point and then computing the deseasonalized tropical mean.

Citation: Journal of Climate 26, 7; 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00416.1

4. Results

The 68-month OLR and RSW trend analyses identify several regions with statistically significant trends (Figs. 2a, 3a). These 68-month trends are not meant to be indicative of any climate change but rather are indicative of interannual ENSO variability. The most dominant OLR signal (Fig. 2a) is a significant positive OLR trend (~5 W m−2 yr−1) over the Maritime Continent and a significant negative OLR trend in the equatorial western Pacific Ocean (~−5 W m−2 yr−1). The strongest RSW trends (Fig. 3a) are located in the same regions with similar magnitude and opposite sign. During the time period from March 2000 through October 2005, the multivariate ENSO index (MEI; available from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/enso/mei/) (Wolter and Timlin 1998) shifts from a −1 standard departure in early 2000 to a +1 standard departure in 2002 and early 2005. A negative (positive) MEI index or a La Niña (El Niño) event is associated with a westward (eastward) displacement of convection in the tropical western Pacific toward the Maritime Continent (central Pacific). Therefore, MEI changes during this period are associated with an increase in central equatorial Pacific cloudiness and a decrease in cloudiness over the Maritime Continent and western equatorial Pacific. The spatial pattern of the TOA flux trends is consistent with the expected clouds changes associated with a shift from negative to positive MEI (Loeb et al. 2012).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Tropical OLR 1° × 1° trends in W m−2 yr−1 for (a) full diurnal cycle sampling, (b) Terra sun-synchronous sampling, and (c) difference trends. Only statistically significant difference trends at the 95% confidence level are shown in (c).

Citation: Journal of Climate 26, 7; 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00416.1

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Tropical RSW 1° × 1° trends in W m−2 yr−1 for (a) full diurnal cycle sampling, (b) Terra sun-synchronous sampling, and (c) difference trends. Only statistically significant difference trends at the 95% confidence level are shown in (c).

Citation: Journal of Climate 26, 7; 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00416.1

Regional trend analysis for incomplete diurnal sampling reveals trends with the same spatial pattern and magnitude at the 95% confidence level as obtained with complete diurnal sampling for both OLR and RSW (Figs. 2b, 3b). Trends differences for OLR (Fig. 2c) and RSW (Fig. 3c) between incomplete and complete diurnal sampling further elucidate the impact of sampling differences. The difference trends are computed using the monthly mean anomaly difference time series between the two datasets defined as incomplete minus complete diurnal sampling. The north–south linear feature in northeastern Africa (Fig. 2c) is a statistically significant difference trend as are north–south oriented features in the RSW difference trends (Fig. 3c) over the Indian Ocean, India, China, western and eastern Africa, and Pacific Ocean. These features are not considered to be physical differences but rather artifacts from poor-quality GEO data over these regions and the temporal interpolation methodology. Doelling et al. (2013) expect time interpolation artifacts of this type to become less prominent in the future by using hourly GEO data and through advances in GEO instrumentation. Positive OLR trend differences over some desert regions (Atacama Desert, northeastern Africa, and Kalahari Desert) are found to be statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. RSW difference trends tend to be larger than in OLR. Most of the statistically significant RSW differences trends appear to be GEO artifacts.

Tables 1 and 2 summarize the tropical mean OLR and RSW trends, respectively. The tropical mean March 2000 through October 2005 68-month trends are computed for CERES–Terra SYN Ed2rev1, which contains complete diurnal sampling. Comparing with trends from the incomplete diurnal sampling datasets reveals no statistically significant trend differences caused by incomplete diurnal sampling. Further, OLR and RSW variability, represented by standard deviation (Tables 1, 2), is also unaffected by diurnal sampling. The 95% confidence range for the 68-month sample standard deviation is ±17% or ~±0.13 W m−2 for both OLR and RSW, indicating that the variabilities from the complete and incomplete diurnal sampling datasets are statistically indistinguishable.

Table 1.

Summary of tropical mean OLR standard deviation and trends.

Table 1.

Table 2.

Summary of tropical mean RSW standard deviation and trends.

Table 2.

Finally, statistically significant trend detection depends upon the magnitude of natural variability or dataset noise (Weatherhead et al. 1998; Leroy et al. 2008). The results in Tables 1 and 2 indicate that the variability in monthly mean OLR and RSW from complete and incomplete diurnal sampling datasets possess the same variance at the 95% confidence level. Therefore, the impact of sun-synchronous sampling on the ability to detect trends is expected to be small. The impact of incomplete diurnal sampling on the ability to detect trends can be quantified using the framework of Leroy et al. (2008). The degradation in the ability to detect trends is defined as the ratio of the sampling error to natural variability. The results indicate a 3% degradation in the ability to detect an OLR or RSW trend caused by sampling errors from incomplete diurnal sampling. Therefore, incomplete, sun-synchronous diurnal sampling does not impact observed TOA flux variability or the magnitude of 68-month trends associated with the variation from a negative to a positive ENSO phase.

5. Attributing monthly OLR variability

A three-term decomposition is applied to monthly OLR diurnal composites separating contributions from 1) monthly mean state changes and 2) diurnal cycle shape changes. The purpose of this decomposition is to elucidate the insensitivity of observed tropical OLR and RSW variability and trends to incomplete diurnal sampling. Each monthly mean, 3-hourly diurnal composite OLR(y, m, h) is represented by three terms: 1) the monthly climatological 3-hourly composite OLRclim(m, h); 2) a diurnally uniform component δOLRshift(y, m); and 3) a diurnally varying component δOLRdc(y, m, h):
e2
e3
e4
In (2), (3), and (4), y, m, and h refer to the year, month, and hour indices, respectively. Here, OLRclim(m, h) is defined for a given calendar month and 3-hourly interval in each 1° × 1° grid box. In (3), δOLRshift(m, h) is defined as the monthly deseasonalized OLR anomaly. Physically, this term represents contributions to monthly mean OLR from diurnally uniform cloud, temperature, and water vapor combined changes. The δOLRdc(y, m, h), which is defined in (4), represents monthly mean diurnal cycle shape changes from combined variability in cloud, temperature, and water vapor diurnal cycles. An example of this decomposition is shown in Fig. 4. The relative contributions of δOLRshift and δOLRdc to OLR variability ( and , respectively) are cleanly separated considering deseasonalized monthly, 3-hourly OLR anomalies,
e5
e6
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Example application of (1) in March 2000 showing OLRclim(m, h) (dashed line), OLR(y, m, h) (solid line), and OLRclim(m, h) + δOLRshift(y, m) (dotted line). The x axis is time (local solar time) and the y axis is OLR (W m−2).

Citation: Journal of Climate 26, 7; 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00416.1

Figures 5a,b show and contributions expressed as percentages of for 1° × 1° regions. The largest values occur (Fig. 5c) over the Indian Ocean and tropical western Pacific because of convective activity associated with the Indian monsoon, MJO, and ENSO. In these regions, values are generally greater than 80%, indicating that variations in monthly mean atmospheric conditions are the most important contributor to . The contributes less than 20% in all ocean regions and less than 30% in all desert regions. The largest contributions occur over land convective regions (e.g., South America, central Africa, and the Maritime Continent) and exceed 20%. The most significant contributions to from occur in equatorial Africa and reach 50%. The results indicate that the largest impact of incomplete diurnal sampling from diurnal cycle variability at monthly time scales occurs in land convective regions.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Tropical contour plots of (a) and (b) expressed as percentages of and (c) (W m−2) for 1° × 1° regions.

Citation: Journal of Climate 26, 7; 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00416.1

Variance contributions in equatorial land convective regions from diurnal cycle shape variability can be caused by 1) a sensitivity of the convective diurnal cycle to monthly mean atmospheric state or 2) uneven sampling of cloudy and clear scenes because of the random nature of convection. If diurnal cycle variability in land convective regions is from variations in the sampling of cloud and clear sky diurnal cycles, then averaging over larger spatial scales should decrease sampling differences and contributions to . To investigate this, Fig. 6 shows the contributions from and to at a 10° × 10° grid scale. At this spatial scale, the contributions are significantly reduced in all regions and do not exceed 20%. Figure 6b shows that contributes over 90% of over ocean, confirming that, at larger spatial scales, incomplete diurnal sampling has a much weaker influence on observed TOA flux variability.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

As in Fig. 5, but at 10° × 10° spatial scale.

Citation: Journal of Climate 26, 7; 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00416.1

6. Summary and conclusions

Measuring TOA radiative fluxes is necessary for monitoring and understanding the present climate and the future evolution of climate changes under anthropogenic radiative forcing. Global measurements of TOA fluxes are required for climate research and can only be performed from satellite platforms. All satellite orbits introduce some level of spatial and temporal sampling error, and as a result incomplete sampling is always a concern. This study analyzes the impacts of incomplete diurnal sampling from a sun-synchronous orbit by comparing TOA flux variability and trends from two datasets with complete and incomplete diurnal sampling. The CERES–Terra edition 2 revision 1 synoptic data product provides complete diurnal sampling at 3-hourly temporal resolution and 1° × 1° spatial resolution for 68 months from March 2000 to October 2005. Impacts of incomplete diurnal sampling are investigated by subsampling TOA fluxes at 1030 and 2230 LST overpass times consistent with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Terra orbit.

The comparison between diurnally incomplete and complete datasets reveals a small impact of incomplete diurnal sampling on OLR and RSW variability and trends at regional 1° × 1°, regional 10° × 10°, and tropical mean spatial scales. The observed regional OLR and RSW 68-month trends resemble expected TOA flux changes in response to a transition from a negative to positive phase of ENSO during the period of observation. The largest OLR and RSW trends are observed over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean (exceeding −5 and 5 W m−2 yr−1, respectively) and the Maritime Continent (exceeding +5 and −5 W m−2 yr−1, respectively) associated with a cloud increase over the central equatorial Pacific and a cloud decrease over the Maritime Continent. Comparison of OLR and RSW trends and variability from complete and incomplete diurnal sampling indicates no statistically significant differences at 1° × 1° and 10° × 10° regional scales at the 95% confidence level. The tropical mean 68-month trends and 95% confidence intervals in OLR and RSW in the complete diurnal sampling dataset are +0.16 ± 0.12 W m−2 yr−1 and −0.04 ± 0.12 W m−2 yr−1, respectively; tropical mean 68-month trends and 95% confidence intervals in OLR and RSW in the incomplete diurnal sampling dataset are +0.18 ± 0.12 W m−2 yr−1 and +0.02 ± 0.12 W m−2 yr−1, respectively. These tropical mean trends exhibit no statistically significant difference between complete and incomplete diurnal sampling at the 95% confidence level.

The small impact of incomplete diurnal sampling on TOA flux variability and trends is attributed to small contributions of regional diurnal cycle shape variations to TOA flux variability. The results show that the largest contributions to OLR anomalies and OLR variance stem from diurnally uniform monthly mean state changes. Over ocean, contributions to OLR variances are dominated by diurnally uniform monthly mean state changes; these contributions are generally >80% in 1° × 1° regions and exceed 90% in 10° × 10° regions. Several 1° × 1° land convective diurnal cycle regions (e.g., South America, central Africa, and the Maritime Continent) show that diurnal cycle shape changes can account for up to 50% of the OLR variance. Diurnal cycle shape change contributions, however, possess a large dependence on spatial scale; diurnally varying contributions do not exceed 20% in 10° × 10° regions. It is concluded that diurnal cycle structure changes contribute little to OLR variance over most tropical regions. The most important contribution to OLR variability is monthly mean state changes in atmospheric conditions, especially at larger spatial scales. This result shows that tropical TOA flux variability is weakly dependent on time of day and as a result incomplete diurnal sampling has a limited impact on observed TOA flux variability and trends.

The variations in TOA flux diurnal cycle shape and the magnitude of TOA flux trends found in the relatively short 6-yr period considered in this study are primarily a result of cloud and atmospheric state changes in response to a single ENSO cycle. We expect the variations and trends to be much smaller with a much longer data record. As a result, uncertainties in TOA flux variability and trends caused by incomplete diurnal cycle sampling should be smaller with a longer record, but further work is needed to verify this.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Dr. Seiji Kato for useful conversations regarding this work and the helpful comments of two anonymous reviewers. The data used in this study are stored at the Atmospheric Science Data Center at NASA Langley.

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