MEM, KK, and AT acknowledge support for this work from the ATM program of the National Science Foundation (Grant ATM-0902133). HG is Senior Research Associate with the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (FRS–FNRS-Belgium).
AT enjoyed numerous insightful discussions with Fei-Fei Jin on balance equations, which are gratefully acknowledged. The authors also wish to acknowledge the World Climate Research Programme’s Working Group on Coupled Modelling, which is responsible for CMIP, and we thank all the climate modeling groups for producing and making available their model output. For CMIP the U.S. Department of Energy’s Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison provides coordinating support and led development of software infrastructure in partnership with the Global Organization for Earth System Science Portals. CMIP5 model output was downloaded via the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Office (KNMI) climate explorer (http://climexp.knmi.nl). We gratefully acknowledge the ECMWF in creating the ocean (ORA-S3) and atmosphere (ERA-40) reanalysis products. The ISCCP D2 data were obtained from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project web site (http://isccp.giss.nasa.gov), maintained by the ISCCP research group at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, New York. Reanalysis and satellite products were downloaded via the Asia-Pacific Data-Research Center (APDRC) of the International Pacific Research Center (IPRC) (http://apdrc.soest.hawaii.edu). The authors acknowledge the use of the NCAR Command Language (NCL) in the data analysis and visualization herein. We are grateful to Sonya Miller and Audine Laurian for additional LOVECLIM code support. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funding entities.
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