ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Optimization of a Reinforced-flat End Cap Through Analytical Study and Genetic Algorithm
An efficient design is a key factor in final expenditure of a certain construction. Pressure vessels are structures that play an indispensable role in different industries such as petroleum, power plants etc. Pressure vessels are receptacles often used to keep gases or liquids at a pressure typically different from what atmospheric pressure is. End caps which close the end of vessels can be formed in different shapes. Thus, end cap design also has a significant role in the integrity of vessels to prevent fatal accidents that are frequent in the pressure vessel’s history. In this study, an extensive investigation of huge-flat end caps under external pressure was carried out to extract the most efficient geometrical layout. This kind of flat end cap is an essential part of the designed main duct in the Air Cooled Condenser (ACC) systems as a configuration that renders steam to condensed water inside a definite arrangement of finned tubes in a hybrid thermal power plant. To determine an optimized state of stresses considering weight limitation, a number of finite element models were simulated. The simulations were performed in a relatively wide domain of two geometrical variables, namely thickness and height of stiffeners. By constituting a comprehensive data library, an objective function was formed using the results of finite element. The procedure was followed through a genetic algorithm to find an optimized stress state. An analytical study was also accomplished to reach an optimized end cap resulting in the lowest stress level. The findings showed very similar results for the two methods. Furthermore, a profound observation of the influence of two geometrical parameters was conducted in different weight limits. Although this study is based on a particular actual-industrial problem in an implemented power plant, the proposed method and results are applicable to a great number of similar cases.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2986_0ca8e00e27a9790e9495f44d54d99555.pdf
2019-09-01
1
9
10.22084/jrstan.2019.19345.1095
Flat end cap
Pressure vessel
Finite element
Kuhn-Tucker
Genetic Algorithm
A.R.
Hosseinzadeh
amirreza.hosseinzade@gmail.com
1
Air Cooled Condensate Group, Mechanical Engineering Department, Monenco Iran Consulting Engineers, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
M.
Ebrahimi
ebrahimi.mehdi@monencogroup.com
2
Air Cooled Condensate Group, Mechanical Engineering Department, Monenco Iran Consulting Engineers, Iran.
AUTHOR
H.
Sodagari
sodagari.hadi@monencogroup.com
3
Air Cooled Condensate Group, Mechanical Engineering Department, Monenco Iran Consulting Engineers, Iran.
AUTHOR
A.R.
Abedian
abedian.reza@monencogroup.com
4
Air Cooled Condensate Group, Mechanical Engineering Department, Monenco Iran Consulting Engineers, Iran.
AUTHOR
[1] D.R. Moss, M. Basic, Pressure Vessels Design, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Inc., (2013).
1
[2] A.H. Mahmoudi, A.R. Hosseinzadeh, M. Jooya, Plasticity effect on residual stresses measurement using contour method, Int. J. Eng. 26(10) (2013) 1203-1212.
2
[3] A.T. Poojary, R.S. Sharma, M.H. Patel, D.U. Sheth, C.R. Kini, R. Nayak, Design and modelling of hemispherical and flat dish end pressure vessel, Indian J. Sci. Technol., 8(33) (2015) 1-7.
3
[4] G. Towler, R. Sinnott, Chemical Engineering Design: Principles, Practice and Economics of Plant and Process Design, Boston: Elsevier, (2013).
4
[5] S. Hassan, K. Kumar, Ch.D. Raj, K. Sridhar, Design and optimisation of pressure vessel using metaheuristic approach, Appl. Mech. Mater., 465-466 (2014) 401-406.
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[6] P. Xu, J. Zheng, H. Chen, P. Liu, Optimal design of high pressure hydrogen storage vessel using an adaptive genetic algorithm, Int. J. Hydrog. Energy, 35(7) (2010) 2840-2846.
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[7] C.P. Fowler, A.C. Orifici, C.H. Wang, A review of toroidal composite pressure vessel optimization and damage tolerant design for high pressure gaseousfuel storage, Int. J. Hydrog. Energy, 41(47) (2016) 22067-22089.
7
[8] D. Leh, B. Magneville, P. Saffr, P. Francescato, R. Arrieux, S. Villalonga, Optimization of 700 bar type IV hydrogen pressure vessel considering composite damage and dome multi-sequencing, Int. J. Hydrog. Energy, 40(38) (2015) 13215-13230.
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[9] A.E. Kumar, R.K. Santosh, S.R. Teja, E. Abishek, Static and dynamic analysis of pressure vessels with various, Materials Today: Proceedings, 5(2) (2018) 5039-5048.
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[10] B.S. Kumar, P. Prasanna, J. Sushma, K.P. Srikanth, Stress analysis and design optimization of a pressure vessel using Ansys package, Materials Today: Proceedings, 5 (2018) 4551-4562.
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[11] R.C. Carbonari, P.A. Muñoz-Rojas, E.Q. Andrade, G.H. Paulino, K. Nishimoto, E.C.N. Silva, Design of pressure vessels using shape optimization: An integrated approach Carbonari, Int. J. Press. Vessels Pip., 88(5-7) (2011) 198-212.
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[12] ABAQUS 6.14, User’s Manual, ABAQUS, (2014).
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[13] E. Buckingham, On physically similar systems; illustrations of the use of dimensional equations, Phys. Rev., 4(4) (1914) 345-376.
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[14] R.K. Arora, Optimization algorithms and applications, Trivandrum, India: Chapman and Hall/CRC, (2015).
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[15] A.R. Hosseinzadeh, A.H. Mahmoudi, Determination of mechanical properties using sharp macroindentation method and genetic algorithm, Mech. Mater., 114 (2017) 57-68.
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[16] A.R. Hosseinzadeh, A.H. Mahmoudi, Measuring non-equi biaxial residual stresses and material properties using Knoop indentation, J. Test. Eval., 48(2) (In Press), DOI: 10.1520/JTE20170730.
16
[17] M. Melanie, An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, (1999).
17
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Optimization and Parametric Study of the Cap Geometry on Collapse Properties of Energy Absorbers under Quasistatic Loading
In the present research, the influence of cap geometry on the collapse of thin-walled aluminum-made energy absorbers with various section geometries was investigated. For this purpose, a total of 35 different absorbers were subjected to axial quasi-static loading. In this respect, five different section types and seven different cap configurations were considered for the absorbers and their caps, respectively. The analyses were performed in both experimental and numerical methods. The numerical simulations were conducted using LSDYNA Software and experimental tests were performed to verify the numerical investigations. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental data and numerical results. The results indicated that, in all cases, the application of the cap enhanced the crush force efficiency while lowering maximum force at collapse. In the final stage of the research, optimal absorbers for the cases with open-ended and close-ended caps were proposed using Minitab Software based on the response surface methodology.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2987_ecd952480969580c564ccd9fac775102.pdf
2019-09-01
11
25
10.22084/jrstan.2019.18577.1089
Energy absorber
LS-DYNA
Quasi-static loading
Optimization
S.
Chahardoli
saberchahardoli@gmail.com
1
Mechanical Engineering Department, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
AUTHOR
N.
Vahdat Azad
nader.vahdatazad@ssau.ac.ir
2
Aeronautical Engineering Department, Shahid Sattari University, Tehran, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] W. Abramowicz, The effective crushing distance in axially compressed thin-walled metal columns, Int. J. Impact Eng., 1(3) (1983) 309-317.
1
[2] W. Abramowicz, N. Jones, Dynamic axial crushing of circular tubes, Int. J. Impact Eng., 2(3) (1984) 263-281.
2
[3] T. Wierzbicki, W. Abramowicz, On the crushing mechanics of thin-walled structures, J. Appl. Mech., 50(4a) (1983) 727-734.
3
[4] M. Güden, H. Kavi, Quasi-static axial compression behavior of constraint hexagonal and squarepacked empty and aluminum foam-filled aluminum multi-tubes, Thin Walled Struct., 44(7) (2006) 739-750.
4
[5] A.G. Olabi, E. Morris, M.S.J. Hashmi, M.D. Gilchrist, Optimised design of nested circular tube energy absorbers under lateral impact loading, Int. J. Mech. Sci., 50(1) (2008) 104-116.
5
[6] M. Avalle, G. Chiandussi, Optimisation of a vehicle energy absorbing steel component with experimental validation, Int. J. Impact Eng., 34(4) (2007) 843-858.
6
[7] X.W. Zhang, Q.D. Tian, T.X. Yu, Axial crushing of circular tubes with buckling initiators, Thin Walled Struct., 47(6-7) (2009) 788-797.
7
[8] E. Acar, M.A. Guler, B. Gerçeker, M.E. Cerit, B. Bayram, Multi-objective crashworthiness optimization of tapered thin-walled tubes with axisymmetric indentations, Thin Walled Struct., 49(1) (2011) 94-105.
8
[9] M. Shariati, H.R. Allahbakhsh, Numerical and experimental investigations on the buckling of steel semi-spherical shells under various loadings, Thin Walled Struct., 48(8) (2010) 620-628.
9
[10] A. Alavi Nia, J. Haddad Hamedani, Comparative analysis of energy absorption and deformations of thin walled tubes with various section geometries, Thin Walled Struct., 48(12) (2010) 946-954.
10
[11] A. Ghamarian, M.A. Farsi, Experimental and numerical analysis of collapse behavior of combined Thin walled structures under axial loading, Aerosp. Res. Inst., 8 (2012) 99-109.
11
[12] A. Ghamarian, M. Tahaye Abadi, Axial crushing analysis of end-capped circular tube, Thin Walled Struct., 49(6) (2011) 743-752.
12
[13] V. Jandaghi Shahi, J. Marzbanrad, Analytical and experimental studies on quasi-static axial crush behavior of thin-walled tailor-made aluminum tubes, Thin Walled Struct., 60 (2012) 24-37.
13
[14] J. Song, Numerical simulation on windowed tubes subjected to oblique impact loading and a new method for the design of obliquely loaded tubes, Int. J. Impact Eng., 54 (2013) 192-205.
14
[15] G. Sun, F. Xu, G. Li, Q. Li, Crashing analysis and multiobjective optimization for thin-walled structures with functionally graded thickness, Int. J. Impact Eng., 64 (2014) 62-74.
15
[16] S. Sharifi, M. Shakeri, H.E. Fakhari, M. Bodaghi, Experimental investigation of bitubal circular energy absorbers under quasi-static axial load, Thin Walled Struct., 89 (2015) 42-53.
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[17] A. Alavi Nia, S. Chahardoli, Optimizing the layout of nested three-tube structures in quasi-static axial collapse, Thin Walled Struct., 107 (2016) 169-181.
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[19] ASTM. International, ASTM E8/E8M - 09 Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials: ASTM, (2009).
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[20] R. Suich, G. Derringer, Simultaneous optimization of several response variables, J. Qual. Tech., 12(4) (1980) 214-219.
20
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Effect of Hygrothermal Environmental Conditions on the Time-dependent Creep Response of Functionally Graded Magneto-electro-elastic Hollow Sphere
In this paper, hygro-thermo-magneto-electro-elastic creep stress redistribution of a functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic (FGMEE) hollow sphere is examined. It is supposed that all material properties are a power-law function of radius. Temperature and moisture concentration functions are obtained analytically and then, a differential equation with creep strains is obtained using equations of electrostatic, magnetostatic and equilibrium, At first, ignoring the creep strains, a solution for the initial hygro-thermo-magneto-electroelastic stresses at zero time is achieved. Subsequently, creep strains are considered and creep stress rates are obtained. The Prandtl-Reuss equations and Norton’s law are taken for the creep analysis. Finally, time-dependent creep stresses as well as magnetic and potential field redistributions at any time are obtained using an iterative method. Results show that the radial stress, radial displacement, electric potential and magnetic potentials increase as time goes by at a decreasing rate. Also, the grading index and hygrothermal condition have more considerable effect on the radial stress after creep evolution rather than initial case. Thus, their effects must be considered in creep evolution analysis.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2988_a9b03aed5be894d7df14fd06902e5957.pdf
2019-09-01
27
41
10.22084/jrstan.2019.18157.1080
FGMEE
Hygrothermal loading
Time-dependent creep
Hollow sphere
M.
Saadatfar
m.saadatfar@gmail.com
1
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Qom, Qom, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] H.S. Tzou, H.J. Lee, S.M. Arnold, Smart materials, precision sensors/actuators, smart structures, and structronic systems, Mech. Adv. Mater. Struct., 11(4-5) (2004) 367-393.
1
[2] N. Habibi, S. Asadi, R. Moradikhah, Evaluation of SIF in FGM thick-walled cylindrical vessel, J. Stress Anal., 2(1) (2017) 57-68.
2
[3] M. Omidi bidgoli, A. Loghman, M. Arefi, The effect of grading index on two-dimensional stress and strain distribution of fg rotating cylinder resting on a friction bed under thermomechanical loading, J. Stress Anal., 3(2) (2019) 75-82.
3
[4] M. Saadatfar, M. Aghaie-Khafri, Electromagnetothermoelastic behavior of a rotating imperfect hybrid functionally graded hollow cylinder resting on an elastic foundation, Smart Struct. Syst., 15(6) (2015) 1411-1437.
4
[5] M. Saadatfar, M. Aghaie-Khafri, On the magnetothermo-elastic behavior of a FGM cylindrical shell with pyroelectric layers featuring interlaminar bonding imperfections rested in an elastic foundation, J. Solid Mech., 7(3) (2015) 344-363.
5
[6] M. Saadatfar, M. Aghaie-Khafri, Thermoelastic analysis of a rotating functionally graded cylindrical shell with functionally graded sensor and actuator layers on an elastic foundation placed in a constant magnetic field, J. Intel. Mater. Sys. Struct., 27(4) (2015) 512-527.
6
[7] H.L. Dai, H.J. Jiang, L. Yang, Time-dependent behaviors of a FGPM hollow sphere under the coupling of multi-fields, Solid State Sci., 14(5) (2012) 587-597.
7
[8] H.M. Wang, H.J. Ding, Transient responses of a magneto-electro-elastic hollow sphere for fully coupled spherically symmetric problem, Eur. J. Mech. A Solids, 25(6) (2006) 965-980.
8
[9] H.M. Wang, H.J. Ding, Radial vibration of piezoelectric/magnetostrictive composite hollow sphere, J. Sound Vib., 307(1-2) (2004) 330-348.
9
[10] Y. Ootao, M. Ishihara, Exact solution of transient thermal stress problem of a multilayered magnetoelectro-thermoelastic hollow sphere, Appl. Math. Model., 36(4) (2012) 1431-1443.
10
[11] J.Y. Chen, E. Pan, P.R. Heyliger, Static deformation of a spherically anisotropic and multilayered magneto-electro-elastic hollow sphere, Int. J. Solids Struct., 60(60-61) (2015) 66-74.
11
[12] M. Saadatfar, M. Aghaie-Khafri, Hygrothermomagnetoelectroelastic analysis of a functionally graded magnetoelectroelastic hollow sphere resting on an elastic foundation, Smart Mater. Struct., 23(3) (2014) 035004.
12
[13] W. Smittakorn, P.R. Heyliger, A discretelayer model of laminated hygrothermopiezoelectric plates, Mech. Compos. Mater. Struct., 7(1) (2000)79-104.
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[14] W. Smittakorn, P.R. Heyliger, An adaptive wood composite: theory, Wood Fiber Sci., 33(4) (2001) 595-608.
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[15] S. Raja, P.K. Sinha, G. Prathap, D. Dwarakanthan, Thermally induced vibration control of composite plates and shells with piezoelectric active damping, Smart Mater. Struct., 13(4) (2004) 939-950.
15
[16] M. Saadatfar, M. Aghaie-Khafri, On the behavior of a rotating functionally graded hybrid cylindrical shell with imperfect bonding subjected to hygrothermal condition, J. Therm. Stresses, 38(8) (2015) 854-881.
16
[17] M. Saadatfar, M. Aghaie-Khafri, Hygrothermal analysis of a rotating smart exponentially graded cylindrical shell with imperfect bonding supported by an elastic foundation, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 43 (2015) 37-50.
17
[18] M. Saadatfar, Effect of multiphysics conditions on the behavior of an exponentially graded smart cylindrical shell with imperfect bonding, Meccanica, 50(8) (2015) 2135-2152.
18
[19] L.H. You, H. Ou, Steady-state creep analysis of thick-walled spherical pressure vessels with varying creep properties, J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 130(1) (2008) 014501-1-014501-5.
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[20] A. Loghman, N. Shokouhi, Creep damage evaluation of thick-walled spheres using a long-term creep constitutive model, J. Mech. Sci. Technol., 23 (2009) 2577-2582.
20
[21] A. Loghman, A. Ghorbanpour Arani, S.M.A. Aleayoub, Time-dependent creep stress redistribution analysis of thick-walled functionally graded spheres, Mech. Time-Depend Mater. 15(4) (2011) 353-365.
21
[22] A. Loghman, S.M.A. Aleayoub, M. Hasani Sadi, Time-dependent magnetothermoelastic creep modeling of FGM spheres using method of successive elastic solution, Appl. Math. Model., 36(2) (2012) 836-845.
22
[23] J. Jafari Fesharaki, A. Loghman, M. Yazdipoor, S. Golabi, Semi-analytical solution of time-dependent thermomechanical creep behavior of FGM hollow spheres, Mech. Time-Depend Mater., 18(1) (2014) 41-53.
23
[24] A. Ghorbanpour Arani, R. Kolahchi, A.A. Mosallaie Barzoki, A. Loghman, The effect of timedependent creep on electro-thermo-mechanical behaviors of piezoelectric sphere using Mendelson’s method, Europ. J. Mech. A Solids, 37 (2013) 318-328.
24
[25] M. Jabbari, M.S. Tayebi, Time-dependent electromagneto-thermoelastic stresses of a poro-piezofunctionally graded material hollow sphere, J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 138(5) (2016) 051201-1-051201-12.
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[26] A. Loghman, H. Tourang, Non-stationary electrothermo-mechanical creep response and smart deformation control of thick-walled sphere made of polyvinylidene fluoride, J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng., 8(8) (2016) 2547-2561.
26
[27] M. Saadatfar, Effect of Interlaminar Weak bonding and constant magnetic field on the hygrothermal stresses of a FG hybrid cylindrical shell using DQM, J. Stress Anal., 3(1) (2018) 93-110.
27
[28] M.R. Eslami, M.H. Babaei, R. Poultangari, Thermal and mechanical stresses in a functionally graded thick sphere, Int. J. Press. Vessels Pip., 82(7) (2005) 522-527.
28
[29] M. Saadatfar, Time-dependent creep response of magneto-electro-elastic rotating disc in thermal and humid environmental condition, AUT J. Mech. Eng., (In Press), DOI: 10.22060/AJME.2019.15375.5770.
29
[30] M. Saadatfar, Analytical solution for the creep problem of a rotating functionally graded magnetoelectro-elastic hollow cylinder in thermal environment, Int. J. Appl. Mech., (In Press), DOI: 101142/S1758825119500534.
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[31] M. Saadatfar, Stress redistribution analysis of piezomagnetic rotating thick-walled cylinder with temperature-and moisture-dependent material properties, J. Appl. Comput. Mech., 6(1) (2020) 90-104.
31
[32] A. Ghorbanpour, S. Golabi, M. Saadatfar, Stress and electric potential fields in piezoelectric smart spheres, J. Mech. Sci. Technol., 20(11) (2006) 1920-1933.
32
[33] M. Saadatfar, A. Rastgoo, Stress in piezoelectric hollow sphere with thermal gradient, J. Mech. Sci. Technol., 22 (2008) 1460-1467.
33
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Stress-strain Relationship for Steel Fiber-reinforced Lightweight Aggregate Concrete under Uniaxial Compression
The current study presents a series of tests on steel fiber-reinforced lightweight aggregate concrete (SFRLWAC) cylinders in order to develop a stress-strain model for SFRLWAC subjected to compressive monotonic loading. In this experiment, steel fiber ratios of 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 percent by volume of the sample were used in the mixtures. The findings show that adding steel fiber to the lightweight concrete has a slight impact on the ascending branch of the stress-strain curve; however, it has a noticeable influence on the descending branch. The peak stress, strain at peak stress, and modulus of elasticity were investigated. To this end, some equations were established. To predict the complete SFRLWAC stress-strain curve, a stress-strain model was introduced and the validity of the model was explored. There was a good agreement between the proposed model data and experimental findings. Using ABAQUS software, numerical simulation of the SFRLWAC beams subjected to monotonic loading was conducted; the simulated results had an acceptable agreement with the experimental data.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2989_227997c6fbe6526def7c0467f640acda.pdf
2019-09-01
43
52
10.22084/jrstan.2019.18088.1077
Lightweight concrete
Steel fiber
Compressive behavior
Stress-strain model
H.
Dabbagh
h.dabbagh@uok.ac.ir
1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
K.
Amoorezaei
kasra.amoorezaei@gmail.com
2
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
AUTHOR
[1] A.M. Neville, J.J. Brooks, Concrete technology, Harlow, Essex UKf: Longman Scientific & Technical, New York, John Wiley, (1987).
1
[2] ACI Committee, Building code requirements for structural concrete (ACI 318-05) and commentary (ACI 318R-05). American Concrete Institute, (2005).
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[3] C.L. Hwang, M.F. Hung, Durability design and performance of self-consolidating lightweight concrete, Const. Build. Mater., 19(8) (2005) 619-626.
3
[4] A. Bilodeau, V.K.R. Kodur, G.C. Hoff, Optimization of the type and amount of polypropylene fibres for preventing the spalling of lightweight concrete subjected to hydrocarbon fire, Cem. Concr. Compos., 6(2) (2004) 163-174.
4
[5] K. Melby, E.A. Jordet, C. Hansvold, Long-span bridges in Norway constructed in high-strength LWA concrete, Eng. Struct., 18(11) (1996) 845-849.
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[6] A.K. Haug, S. Fjeld, A floating concrete platform hull made of lightweight aggregate concrete, Eng. Struct., 18(11) (1996) 831-836.
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[7] J.A. Rossignolo, M.V. Agnesini, J.A. Morais, Properties of high-performance LWAC for precast structures with Brazilian lightweight aggregates, Cem. Concr. Compos., 25(1) (2003) 77-82.
7
[8] E. Yasar, C.D. Atis, A. Kilic, H. Gulsen, Strength properties of lightweight concrete made with basaltic pumice and fly ash, Mater. Lett., 57(15) (2003) 2267-2270.
8
[9] M.N. Haque, H. Al-Khaiat, O. Kayali, Strength and durability of lightweight concrete, Cem. Concr. Compos., 26(4) (2004) 307-314.
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[10] M.H. Zhang, O.E. Gjvorv, Mechanical properties of high-strength lightweight concrete, ACI Mater. J., 88(3) (1991) 240-247.
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[12] G. Campione, N. Miraglia, M. Papia, Mechanical properties of steel fibre reinforced lightweight concrete with pumice stone or expanded clay aggregates, Mater. Struct., 34(4) (2001) 201-210.
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[13] T. Uygunoğlu, Investigation of microstructure and flexural behavior of steel-fiber reinforced concrete, Mater. Struct., 41(8) (2008) 1441-1449.
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[14] M. Hassanpour, P. Shafigh, H.B. Mahmud, Lightweight aggregate concrete fiber reinforcement–a review, Const. Build. Mater., 37 (2012) 452-461.
14
[15] Y. Hao, H. Hao, G. Chen, Experimental investigation of the behaviour of spiral steel fibre reinforced concrete beams subjected to drop-weight impact loads, Mater. Struct., 49(1-2) (2016) 353-370.
15
[16] K.H. Mo, S.H. Goh, U.J. Alengaram, P. Visintin, M.Z. Jumaat, Mechanical, toughness, bond and durability-related properties of lightweight concrete reinforced with steel fibres, Mater. Struct., 50(1)(2017) 46.
16
[17] P. Suraneni, P.C.B. Anleu, R.J. Flatt, Factors affecting the strength of structural lightweight aggregate concrete with and without fibers in the 1,200-1,600kg/m3 density range, Mater. Struct., 49(1-2) (2016) 677-688.
17
[18] A. Bentur, S. Mindess, Fibre reinforced cementitious composites, CRC Press, (2014).
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19
[20] W. Abbass, M.I. Khan, S. Mourad, Evaluation of mechanical properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete with different strengths of concrete, Const. Build. Mater., 168 (2018) 556-569.
20
[21] J. Thomas, A. Ramaswamy, Mechanical properties of steel fiber-reinforced concrete, J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 19(5) (2007) 385-392.
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28
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[39] S. Akbarpour, The effects of nano-silica and steel fibers on flexural behavior of reinforced lightweight aggregate concrete beams, PhD Thesis, Iran: University of Kurdistan, (2018).
40
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
A 3D Simulation of Bolted Joint and Fatigue Life Estimation Using Critical Distance Technique
Bolted joints are one of the most common joints in the industry and assemble the most of the machine elements and segments together. Majority of structures are affected by fluctuating forces, therefore there is the risk of fatigue failure that causes countless damages, thus fatigue life estimation of bolted joints have always been important. The value of high stress concentration at the threads root especially first engaged thread causes problems for fatigue life estimation, since by applying stresses lower than yield stress of the bolt material, plastic deformation occurs at zones of thread root that reach to ultimate stress but fracture does not happen and in some cases bolt-nut joints have infinite life, so that maximum stress at thread root is not fatigue life determinant. The modified critical distance technique and expressed stress at this distance were used for determination of fatigue life in joint. In this study, the bolted joint fatigue life prediction using critical distance technique was compared to experimental results. The three-dimensional finite element analysis for bolted joint was performed. Pre-tightening process and tensile axial force were simulated in ABAQUS software after applying two steps of force including rotation displacement to the center of the nut due to clamping joints (applied torque) and tensile force, the stress distribution resultant of different tensile forces by application of the critical distance technique and mechanical properties fatigue life were determined, and S-N curve prediction matched well with experimental data.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2990_50bfa3292aaa62aea953c079e4ec9d0e.pdf
2019-09-01
53
63
10.22084/jrstan.2019.18275.1085
Critical distance technique
Bolted joints
Three-dimensional simulation
Fatigue life estimation
Preload
S-N curve
N.
Habibi
n.habibi@uok.ac.ir
1
Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
M.
Amoorezayi
m.amoorezayi@yahoo.com
2
Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
AUTHOR
[1] L. Maduschka, Bean Spruchung, Von Schrauben Verbandungen and Zweckmabige Gestaltung der Gewindetrager, (Stresses in Threaded Connections and Shape Optimization), Forschung auf dem Gebiete des Ingenie eurwesens, 7(6) (1936) 229-305.
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[6] I. Piscan, N. Predincea, N. Pop, Finite element analysis of bolted joint, J. Manuf. Syst., 5(3) (2010) 167-172.
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7
[8] T.F. Lehnhoff, K.I. Kwang, M.L. Mckay, Member stiffness and contact pressure distribution of bolted joints, J. Mech. Des., 116 (1994) 550-557.
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[9] N. Haidar, S. Obeed, M. Jawa, Mathematical representation of bolted-joint stiffness: a new suggested model, J. Mech. Sci. Tech., 25(11) (2011) 2827-2834.
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[10] O. Zhang, J.A. Poirier, New analytical model of bolted joints, J. Mech. Des., 126(4) (2004) 721-728.
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[12] W.G. Waltermire, A fresh look at a basic question: Coarse or fine threads, Mach. Des., 32 (1960) 134-140.
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[13] G.H. Majzoobi, G.H. Farrahi, N. Habibi, Experimental evaluation of the effect of thread pitch on fatigue life of bolts, Int. J. Fatigue, 27(2) (2005) 189-196.
13
[14] G.H. Majzoobi, G.H. Farrahi, S.J. Hardy, M.K. Pipelzadeh, N. Habibi, Experimental results and finite element predictions of the effects of nut geometry, washer and Teflon tape on the fatigue life of bolts, Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., 28(6) (2005) 557-564.
14
[15] N.F. Knight, D.R. Phillips, I.S. Raju, Simulating the structural response of a preloaded bolted joints, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, (2019) 1-21, DOI: 10.2514/6.2008-1842.
15
[16] F. Esmaeili, T.N. Chakherlou, M. Zehsaz, Investigation of bolt clamping force on the fatigue life of double lap simple bolted and hybrid (bolted/bonded) joints via experimental and numerical analysis, Eng. Fail. Anal., 45 (2014) 406-420.
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[17] A. Biehl, A finite element analysis based approach to determining the nut factor, Master of Mechanical Engineering Thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Hartford, CT, Final Report, (2015).
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[18] T. Fukuoka, M. Nomura, Proposition of helical thread modeling with accurate geometry and finite element analysis, J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 130(1) (2008) 0112041-0112046.
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[19] Y. Hu, B. Yang, Sh.D. Nie, G.X. Dai, Performance of high strength structural bolts in tension: effects of tolerance classes, International Conference on Performance-based and Life-cycle Sructural Engineering, Brisbane, QLD, Australia (2015) 776-781.
19
[20] X. Chen, N.A. Noda1, M.A. Wahab, Y.I. Akaishi1, Y. Sano, Y. Takase, G. Fekete, Fatigue failure analysis for bolt-nut connections having slight pitch differences using experimental and finite element methods, Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, 12(8) (2015) 61-79.
20
[21] Q.M. Yu, H.L. Zhou, Finite element study on pretightening process of threaded connection and failure analysis for pressure vessel, 14th International Conference on Pressure Vessel Technology, 130 (2015) 1385-1396.
21
[22] Sh. Yosefzadeh, S. Torabi, Study and analysis of methods to reduce stress concentration in threads of bolt and nut joints, 1th National Conference on Civil Engineering and Geology, May 13-14, (2015) Aligudarz, Iran (In Persian).
22
[23] E. Selahi, Failure study of hybrid bonded-bolted composite single and double lap joint, J. Stress Anal., 3(2) (2019) 37-46.
23
[24] V. Cojocaru, Z.I. Korka, Influence of thread root radius on maximum local stresses at large diameter bolts under axial loading, Analele Universitatii, Eftimie Murgu, Resita, Anul XXI, NR (1) (2014) 85-90.
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[25] M. Jasztal, M. Regowski, Fatigue life analysis of bolt joints with use of ANSYS software, Mechanik, 91(7) (2018) 600-602.
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[26] Q. Yu, H. Zhou, X. Yu, X. Yang, Hightemperature low cycle fatigue life prediction and experimental research of pre-tightened bolts, Metals, 8(10) (2018) 1-14.
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[27] L. Susmel, The theory of critical distances: a review of its applications in fatigue, Eng. Fract. Mech., 75(7) (2008) 1706-1724.
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[28] J.R. Davis, Metals Handbook, ASM International. Handbook Committee, CRC Press, (1998).
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[29] K.H. Brown, C. Morrow, S. Durbin, A. Baca, Guideline for bolted joint design and analysis: version 1.0, Sandia report, SAND2008-0371, Unlimited Release, Printed January (2008).
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[30] H. Neuber, Theory of Notch Stresses: Principles for exact calculation of strength with reference to structural form and material, 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer Verlag, (1958).
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[31] R.E. Peterson, Notch Sensitivity. In: G. Sines, J.L. Waisman, Eds. Metal Fatigue, New York, McGraw Hill Publisher, (1959) 293-306.
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[36] T. Hattori, M.A.B.A. Wahab, T. Ishida, M. Yamashita, Fretting fatigue life estimations based on the critical distance stress theory, Procedia Eng., 10 (2011) 3134-3139.
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[37] L. Susmel, The theory of critical distances: a review of its applications in fatigue, Eng. Fract. Mech., 75(7) (2008) 1706-1724.
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[38] S.E. Ferreira, J.T.P. De Castro, M.A. Meggiolaro, A model to cyclic damage accumulation calculated by strip-yield procedures, Frattura Ed Integrità Strutturale, 11(41) (2017) 129-138.
38
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Experimental Study of Residual Stresses Due to Inconel X-750 Creep-feed Grinding by the Electropolishing Layer Removal Technique
Creep-feed grinding is an accurate and efficient machining method. In this study, the effects of the cooling condition on surface residual stresses distribution in the creep-feed grinding of Inconel X-750 superalloy have been experimentally investigated. Some test samples were prepared and subjected to creep-feed grinding with dry and flood grinding at different flow rates. The variation of residual stresses in depth was obtained by the electropolishing layer removal technique. Results were shown highest creep-feed grinding forces were developed in dry grinding condition and these forces were declined by increasing the coolant quantity. According to results, by increasing about 71% of fluid flow under flood cooling, the normal and tangential forces decreased by roughly 30%. The results also demonstrated that the measured residual stresses on creep-feed grinded specimens are in the tensile form and using the coolant led to an overwhelming decrease in magnitude and depth of penetration of these stresses.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2991_01c0e2b0384d434566316585116a87f1.pdf
2019-09-01
65
71
10.22084/jrstan.2019.19668.1098
Residual stress
Measurement
Creep-feed grinding
Electro polishing
Layer removal
R.
Moharrami
r_moharami@znu.ac.ir
1
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Zanjan, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
V.
Jafarpour
v_jafarpour@yahoo.com
2
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Zanjan, Iran.
AUTHOR
[1] S.k. Basha, M.V.J. Raju, M. Kolli, Experimental study of electrical discharge machining of inconel x-750 using tungsten-copper electrode, Materials Today Proceedings, 5(5) (2018) 11622-11627.
1
[2] C. Marsh, S. Depinoy, D. Kaoumi, Effect of heat treatment on the temperature dependence of the fracture behavior of x-750 alloy, Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 677 (2016) 474-484.
2
[3] J. Paulo Davim, V.N. Gaitonde, S.R. Karnik, Investigations into the effect of cutting conditions on surface roughness in turning of free machining steel by ANN models, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 205(1-3) (2008) 16-23.
3
[4] M. Liu, T. Nguyen, L. Zhang, Q. Wu, D. Sun , Effect of grinding-induced cyclic heating on the hardened layer generation in the plunge grinding of a cylindrical component, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 89 (2015) 55-63.
4
[5] D. Wenfeng, X. Jiuhua, C. Zhenzhen, S. Honghua, F. Yucan, Grindability and surface integrity of cast nickel-based super alloy in creep-feed grinding with brazed CBN abrasive wheels, Chin. J. Aeronaut., 23(4) (2010) 501-510.
5
[6] M. Gostimirović, D. Rodić, P. Kovač, D. Jesić, N. Kulundžic, Investigation of the cutting forces in creep-feed surface grinding process, J. Prod. Eng., 18(2) (2015) 21-24.
6
[7] M. Gostimirović, M. Sekulić, J. Kopač, P. Kovač, Optimal control of workpiece thermal state in creep-feed grinding using inverse heat conduction analysis, J. Mech. Eng., 57(10) (2011) 730-738.
7
[8] N.S. Rossini, M. Dassisti, K.Y. Benyounis, A.G. Olabi, Methods of measuring residual stresses in components, Mater. Des., 35 (2012) 572-588.
8
[9] B. Kruszyński, S. Togo, R. Wójcik, Possibility to control surface integrity in grinding, J. Manuf. Sci. Technol., 4 (1) (2003) 22-27.
9
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Effect of SiC Particles on Fatigue Life of AL-Matrix Composites
In the present study, a micromechanical modeling approach based on volumetric element was considered from a composite consisted of three components: matrix, particle, and particle-matrix intermediate phase. In order to predict the behavior of the damage evolution in the composite, the particle-matrix intermediate phase was modeled based on the cohesive zone model and disruptive elastoplastic behavior was considered for matrix. In order to study the efficiency of the implemented model, at first, modeling processes were conducted using the USERMAT code in finite element ANSYS software, and then the growth of fatigue damage was investigated in the AL composite reinforced with SiC particles. For this purpose, after the study of characterization static constant of cohesive zone model, validation of the static model was approved. S-N curve obtained from experimental results for pure AL were used for Characterization fatigue constants of the matrix. Comparison of the obtained results from finite element analysis with that of experiment, justifies the capability of the employed model to predict the fatigue life of metal matrix composites reinforced with particles in other conditions and is able to consider the effect of volume fraction in predicting fatigue life while the modelbenefits from the lowest tests for the characterization constants of model.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2992_bc47da94b81a85f35f79cf229c173a69.pdf
2019-09-01
73
88
10.22084/jrstan.2019.19829.1102
Fatigue life
Cohesive zone model
Metal matrix composite
Particulate reinforcement
Z.
Hosseini Tabar
zahra.hosseini.tabar@gmail.com
1
Mechanical Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch, Hamedan, Iran.
AUTHOR
F.
Barati
farzanbarati@yahoo.com
2
Mechanical Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch, Hamedan, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] W.F. Smith, Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys, Lubbock, TX, USA: McGraw-Hill, (1981).
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[2] S. Attar, M. Nagaral, H.N. Reddappa, V. Auradi, A review on particulate reinforced aluminum metal matrix composites, J. Emerging Tech. Innovative Res., 2(2) (2015) 225-229.
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[3] A. Shokuhfar, M. Sabzehparvar, F. Kiani, The Science and Engineering of Advanced Materials Smart and Nanostructured Materials ,Tehran, Iran: kntu publication, (2014) (In Persian).
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[4] H. Abdollah pours, Metal Matrix Composites, Semnan, Iran: Semnan University Press, (2013) (In Persian).
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[5] C. Kaynak, S. Boylu, Effects of SiC particulates on the fatigue behaviour of an Al-Alloy matrix composite, Mater. Des., 27(9) (2006) 776-782.
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[6] N. Chawla, K.K. Chawla, Metal Matrix Composites, First Edition: Springer US Publisher, (2006).
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[7] N. Chawla, Y.L. Shen, Mechanical behavior of particle reinforced metal matrix composites, Advanced Engineering Materials, 3(6) (2001) 357-370.
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[8] N. Chawla, J.E. Allison, Fatigue of Particle Reinforced Materials, In Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Second Edition, Elsevier Amesterdam, The Netherland, (2001) 2967-2971.
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[9] J.J. Lewandowski, Fracture and Fatigue of Particulate MMCs, In: T.W. Clayne (ed.), Compr. Compos. Mater. Metall. Matrix. Compos., Elsevier, 3 (2000) 151-187.
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[17] S. Sridharan, Delamination Behavior of Composites, Boca Raton, Woodhead Publisher, USA: CRC Press, (2008).
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[21] D. Salimi-Majd, Investigation of delamination in laminated composites under fatigue loading using the cohesive interface element, MSc Thesis, School of mechanical engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, (2013) (In Persian).
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29
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Failure Analysis of Base Plate Bolts of Radial Forging Machine
In this study, the failure analysis of base plate bolts of radial forging machine is investigated. Premature failure had occurred from the bolts shank-head fillet and threads zones. Hardness, impact and tensile tests are carried out to investigate the mechanical properties and spectrophotometer is used to evaluate the bolts chemical composition. Optical Microscope (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) are used for the investigation of microstructure, defects, fracture surface and failure causes. The fracture surface morphology shows that the crack growth consisted of bolts shank-head fillet and threads zones including the initiation zone, fatigue crack growth zone along with the beach marks and ratchet steps and the rapid final fracture zone. Stress analysis shows that the amount of pre-tightening selected lower than the proposed value leads to the joint loosening and shortens the bolt’s fatigue life. In addition, based on the paper results, the existing flowchart for component fabrication is analyzed and a flowchart based on research field is presented to enhance the quality of radial forging machine parts.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2993_382c9fc37eaf52a8c7952e2218b37875.pdf
2019-09-01
89
98
10.22084/jrstan.2019.20037.1112
Radial forging machines
Bolts failure
Microstructure
mechanical properties
Stress analysis
K.
Aliakbari
karim.aliakbari@gmail.com
1
Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Montazeri, Khorasan Razavi Branch, Technical and Vocational University (TVU), Mashhad, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] G.D. Lahoti, L. Liuzzi, T. Altan, Design of dies for radial forging of rods and tubes, J. Mech. Work. Technol., 1(1) (1977) 99-109.
1
[2] J. Chen, K. Chandrashekhara, C. Mahimkar, S.N. Lekakh, V.L. Richards, Study of void closure in hot radial forging process using 3D nonlinear finite element analysis, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 62(9-12) (2012) 1001-1011.
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[3] L. Li, R. Wang, Failure analysis on fracture of worm gear connecting bolts, Eng. Fail. Anal., 36 (2014) 439-446.
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[4] H. Kong, D. Liu, T. Jiang, U-shaped bolts fracture failure analysis, Procedia Eng., 99 (2015) 1476-1481.
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[5] D. Pilone, A. Brotzu, F. Felli, Failure analysis of connecting bolts used for anchoring streetlights of a mountain highway, Eng. Fail. Anal., 48 (2015) 137-143.
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[6] P. Behjati, A.R. Etemadi, H. Edris, Failure analysis of holding U-bolts of an automobile wheels, Eng. Fail. Anal., 16(5) (2009) 1442-1447.
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[7] S.H. Molaei, R. Alizadeh, M. Attarian, Y. Jaferian, A failure analysis study on the fractured connecting bolts of a filter press, Case Stud. Eng. Fail. Anal., 4 (2015) 26-38.
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[8] F. Casanova, C. Mantilla, Fatigue failure of the bolts connecting a Francis turbine with the shaft, Eng. Fail. Anal., 90 (2018) 1-13.
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30
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Effects of Crack on Vibration Characteristics of GFRP-stiffened Pipes
In this paper, the vibration characteristics of GFRP-stiffened pipes, in intact and cracked conditions are investigated. The results have different applications, which the most important ones are optimized designs of such pipes and diagnosis of the damage in them. Therefore, by Love theory, governing equations of motion for the GFRP-stiffened pipes were obtained. Having obtained characteristic equation, the natural frequencies of the problem were calculated for intact case. Then by modeling a sample of these pipes in the ANSYS software and using Modal analysis, natural frequencies and related mode shapes due to finite element method were calculated in cracked and intact conditions. Then by using the experimental modal analysis method, the natural frequencies of a sample, which was built similar to these pipes, were obtained in cracked and intact conditions. The results of the analytical method, finite element method, and the experimental modal analysis were compared and it was shown that the results have a good compatibility. The same process was performed on carbon fiber composites.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2994_8966111e4269e24fc7e382b2a1f69c9b.pdf
2019-09-01
99
112
10.22084/jrstan.2019.18794.1091
Composite pipe
GFRP pipe
Love theory
Vibration
Natural frequencies
Mode shapes
FRF: (Frequency Response Function)
M.H.
Velayatparvardeh
mhvelayat91@gmail.com
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
AUTHOR
A.
Shooshtari
shooshta@basu.ac.ir
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
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clamped edge boundaries, J. Vib. Acoust., 119(3) (1997) 317-323.
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transverse impact damage and deformation of 3-D circular braided composite tubes from mesostructure approach, Compos. Part B: Eng., 86 (2016) 243-253.
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a corrugated composite plate, Part A: Compos. Appl. Sci. Manuf., 42(9) (2011) 1119-1126.
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[27] S. Gurgen, M.A. Sofuglu, Experimental investigation on vibration characteristics of shear thickeningfluid filled CFRP tubes, Compos. Struct., 226 (2019) 111-236.
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J. Vibro Eng., 19( 2) (2017) 930-942.
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No. 279, Housing and building national research center, Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Deveplopment and Permanent Committee for the Code of Practice for Steel Construction and Bridges, Arab Republic of Egypt, (2001).
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properties study of E-Glass/Epoxy laminate and π/4 quasi- isotropic E-Glass/Epoxy laminate., Polym. Polym. Compos., 24(6) (2016) 429-446.
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Industrial and Nuclear Engineering University of Cincinnati, Ohio., 219 (1999).
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48
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Ductile Failure Prediction of Friction Stir Welded AA7075-T6 Aluminum Alloy Weakened by a V-notch
With increasing applications of the Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a proper study of the fracture behavior is required. In this research, fracture behavior of AA7075-T6 alloy joint made by FSW is investigated by evaluat-ing a fracture test on the Diagonally Loaded Square Plate (DLSP) specimen containing a V-notch, under various loading conditions. Significant plastic deformation takes place around the notch tip at the propagation instance, which shows the elastic-plastic behavior of the welded joint. Ductile failure needs some elastic-plastic fracture mechanics criteria, which are complex and time-consuming. To deal with this, the Equivalent Material Concept (EMC) was applied via replacing a virtual brittle material with a ductile material by equating the tensile behavior of the welded material. In order to predict the Load-Carrying Capacity (LCC) of the FSW DLSP specimens, the EMC was used, which is in conjunction with two brittle fracture criteria called the Maximum Tangential Stress (MTS) and the Mean Stress (MS). Finally, results indicate that with a slight difference, two mentioned criteria could predict the LLC of the V-notched specimens.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2995_6ba7e6a2a0f5bed07e668146e2a9de28.pdf
2019-09-01
113
124
10.22084/jrstan.2019.19695.1099
Friction Stir Welding (FSW)
Equivalent Material Concept (EMC)
fracture toughness
Elastic-plastic behavior
Maximum Tangential Stress (MTS)
Mean Stress (MS)
A.
Nouri
anouri@ssau.ac.ir
1
Aerospace Engineering Deparement, Shahid Sattari Aeronautical University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
M.
Kazemi Nasrabadi
kazemi@ssau.ac.ir
2
Aerospace Engineering Deparement, Shahid Sattari Aeronautical University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
AUTHOR
[1] W.M. Thomas, E.D. Nicholas, J.C. Needham, M.G. Murch, P. Temple-Smith, C.J. Dawes, Friction stir butt welding, International Patent Application No. PCT/GB92/0220, (1991).
1
[2] P. Bahemmat , M.K. Besharati, M. Haghpanahi, A. Rahbari, R. Salekrostam, Mechanical, micro-, and macrostructural analysis of AA7075–T6 fabricated by friction stir butt welding with different rotational speeds and tool pin profiles, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B: J. Eng. Manuf., 224(3) (2010) 419-433.
2
[3] W. Kim, B.C. Goo, S.T. Won, Optimal design of friction stir welding process to improve tensile force of the joint of A6005 extrusion, Mater. Manuf. Process., 25(7) (2010) 637-643.
3
[4] M. Peel, A. Steuwer, M. Preuss, P.J. Withers., Microstructure, mechanical properties and residual stresses as a function of welding speed in aluminium AA5083 friction stir welds, Acta Mater., 51(16) (2003) 4791-4801.
4
[5] C.M. Chen, R. Kovacevic, Finite element modeling of friction stir welding-thermal and thermomechanical analysis, Int. J. Tools Manuf., 43(13) (2003) 1319-1326.
5
[6] H. Schmidt, J. Hattel, J. Wert, An analytical model for the heat generation in friction stir welding, Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng., 12 (2004) 143-157.
6
[7] S. Rajakumar, V. Balasubramanian, Establishing relationships between mechanical properties of
7
aluminium alloys and optimised friction stir welding process parameters, Mater. Des., 40 (2012) 17-35.
8
[8] K. Kumar, S.V. Kailas, T.S. Srivatsan, Influence of tool geometry in friction stir welding, Mater. Manuf. Process., 23(2) (2008) 188-194.
9
[9] P.M.G.P. Moreira, T. Santos, S.M.O. Tavares, V. Richter-Trummer, P. Vilaça, P.M.S.T. de Castro, Mechanical and metallurgical characterization of friction stir welding joints of AA6061-T6 with AA6082-T6, Mater. Des., 30(1) (2009) 180-187.
10
[10] R. Palanivel, P.K. Mathews, N. Murugan, I. Dinaharan, Effect of tool rotational speed and pin profile on microstructure and tensile strength of dissimilar friction stir welded AA5083-H111 and AA6351-T6 aluminum alloys, Mater. Des., 40 (2012) 7-16.
11
[11] R.S. Mishra, Z.Y. Ma, Friction stir welding and processing, Mater. Sci. Eng. R: Reports., 50(1-2) (2005) 1-78.
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[12] P. Cavaliere, R. Nobile, F.W. Panella, A. Squillace, Mechanical and microstructural behaviour of 2024-7075 aluminium alloy sheets joined by friction stir welding, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 46(6) (2006) 588-594.
13
[13] A. Von-Strombeck, J.F. Dos-Santos, F. Torster, P. Laureano, M. Kocak, Friction Toughness Behaviour of Friction Stir Welding Joints on Aluminum Alloys. First Int, Symp. Frict. Stir Welding, Thousand Oaks, California, USA, (1999).
14
[14] M.G. Dawes, S.A. Karger, T.L. Dickerson, J. Przydatek, Strength and fracture toughness of friction stir welds in aluminum alloys, Proc. 2nd Int. Frict. Stir Weld. Symp., (2000).
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[15] M.K. Kulekci, I. Sevim, U. Esme, Fracture toughness of friction stir-welded lap joints of aluminum alloys, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 21(7) (2012) 1260-1265.
16
[16] A.R. Shahani, A. Farrahi, Effect of sheet thickness on fatigue behavior of friction stir spot weld of Al 6061-T6 lap-shear configuration, J. Stress Anal., 3(1) (2018) 61-68.
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[17] P. Cavaliere, F. Panella, Effect of tool position on the fatigue properties of dissimilar 2024-7075 sheets joined by friction stir welding, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 206(1-3) (2008) 249-255.
18
[18] A.F. Golestaneh, A. Ali, M. Zadeh, Modelling the fatigue crack growth in friction stir welded joint of 2024-T351 Al alloy, Mater. Des., 30(8) (2009) 2928-2937.
19
[19] A.F. Golestaneh, A. Ali, W.S. Voon, M.F. Mastapha, M.Z. Mohammadi, Simulation of fatigue crack growth in friction stir welded joints in 2024-T351 Al alloy, Suranaree J. Sci. Technol., 15(4) (2008) 271-285.
20
[20] A. Alavi Nia, A. Shirazi, A numerical and experimental investigation into the effect of welding parameters on thermal history in friction stir welded copper sheets, J. Stress Anal., 2(1) (2017) 1-9.
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[21] P.M.G.P. Moreira, F.M.F. de Oliveira, P.M.S.T. de Castro, Fatigue behaviour of notched specimens of friction stir welded aluminium alloy 6063-T6, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 207(1-3) (2008) 283-292.
22
[22] M.A. Sutton, A.P. Reynolds, B. Yang, R. Taylor, Mixed mode I / II fracture of 2024-T3 friction stir welds, Eng. Fract. Mech., 70(15) (2003) 2215-2234.
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[23] M.A. Sutton, A.P. Reynolds, B. Yang, R. Taylor, Mode I fracture and microstructure for 2024-T3 friction stir welds, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 354(1-2) (2003) 6-16.
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[24] M.A. Sutton, A.P. Reynolds, J. Yan, B. Yang, N. Yuan, Microstructure and mixed mode I / II fracture of AA2524-T351 base material and friction stir welds, Eng. Fract. Mech., 73(4) (2006) 391-407.
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[25] A.R. Torabi, M.H. Kalantari, M.R.M. Aliha, Fracture analysis of dissimilar Al-Al friction stir welded joints under tensile/shear loading, Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., 41(9) (2018) 2040-2053.
26
[26] M.R.M. Aliha, M.H. Kalantari, S.M.N. Ghoreishi, A.R. Torabi, S. Etesam, Mixed mode I/II crack growth investigation for bi-metal FSW aluminum alloy AA7075-T6/pure copper joints, Theor. Appl. Fract. Mech., 103 (2019) 102243.
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[29] A.R. Torabi, A. Campagnolo, F. Berto, Largescale yielding failure prediction of notched ductile plates by means of the linear elastic notch, Fract. Mech. Strength Mater., 49(2) (2017) 224-433.
30
[30] A.R. Torabi, Estimation of tensile load-bearing capacity of ductile metallic materials weakened by a V-notch: The equivalent material concept, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 536 (2012) 249-255.
31
[31] F. Erdogan, GC. Sih, On the crack extension in plates under plane loading and transverse shear, J. Basic Eng., 85 (1963) 519-525.
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[32] M.R.M. Aliha, M.R. Ayatollahi, Analysis of fracture initiation angle in some cracked ceramics using the generalized maximum tangential stress criterion, Int. J. Solids Struct., 49(13) (2012) 1877-1883.
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[34] A.R. Torabi, M. Alaei, Application of the equivalent material concept to ductile failure prediction of blunt V-notches encountering moderatescale yielding, Int. J. Damage Mech., 25(6) (2016) 853-877.
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[35] A.R. Torabi, R. Habibi, Investigation of ductile rupture in U-notched Al 6061-T6 plates under mixed mode loading, Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., 39(5) (2016) 551-565.
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[36] S. Filippi, P. Lazzarin, R. Tovo, Developments of some explicit formulas useful to describe elastic stress fields ahead of notches in plates, Int. J. Solids Struct., 39(17) (2002) 4543-4565.
37
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Effects of Couple-stress Resultants on Thermo-electro-mechanical Behavior of Vibrating Piezoelectric Micro-plates Resting on Orthotropic Foundation
This work aimed to study the thermo-electro vibration of a piezoelectric micro-plate resting on the orthotropic foundation. To catch the small-scale effects of the structure, couple-stress theory was employed. Motions of the structure were modelled based upon different shear deformation theories including exponential, trigonometric, hyperbolic, parabolic, and forth-order shear defor-mation theories. These modified shear deformation theories are capable of considering transverse shear deformation effects and rotary inertia. Equation of motions are derived with Hamilton’s prin-ciple and to solve these equations an analytical approach is applied. Besides, Effect of different boundary conditions including SSSS, CSSS, CSCS, CCSS and CCCC are investigated. The pre-sent results are validated with the previously published results. In the result section, the influences of various parameters such as increasing temperature, boundary conditions, foundation parameters, thickness ratio, aspect ratio, external volatage, and length scale on the natural frequencies of the plate are illustrated in detail.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2996_99d869dda0143ede1a0d55bd9a709c56.pdf
2019-09-01
125
136
10.22084/jrstan.2019.19583.1097
Couple-stress theory
Analytical approach
Orthotropic foundation
Piezoelectric micro-plate
K.
Khorshidi
k-khorshidi@araku.ac.ir
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Arak University, Arak, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
M.
Ghasemi
ghasemimohsen2080@yahoo.com
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Arak University, Arak, Iran.
AUTHOR
M.
Karimi
karimimsc@gmail.com
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Arak University, Arak, Iran.
AUTHOR
M.
Bahrami
mahdi.bahrami558@gmail.com
4
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Arak University, Arak, Iran.
AUTHOR
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[4] J.M. Dietl, A.M. Wickenheiser, E. Garcia, A Timoshenko beam model for cantilevered pie-zoelectric energy harvesters, Smart Mater. Struct., 19(5) (2010) 055018.
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[10] K. Khorshidi, T. Asgari, A. Fallah, Free vibrations analysis of functionally graded rectangular nanoplates based on nonlocal exponential shear deformation theory, Mech. Advanced Compos. Struct., 2(2) (2015) 79-93.
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[12] Y.S. Li, Z.Y. Cai, S.Y. Shi, Buckling and free vibration of magnetoelectroelastic nanoplate based on nonlocal theory, Compos. Struct., 111 (2014) 522-529.
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[17] J. Lei, Y. He, B. Zhang, D. Liu, L. Shen, S. Guo, A size-dependent FG micro-plate model incorporating higher-order shear and normal deformation effects based on a modified couple stress theory, Int. J. Mech. Sci., 104 (2015) 8-23.
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[18] M.H. Shojaeefard, H.S. Googarchin, M. Ghadiri, M. Mahinzare, Micro temperature-dependent FG porous plate: free vibration and thermal buckling analysis using modified couple stress theory with CPT and FSDT, Appl. Math. Modell., 50 (2017) 633-655.
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[19] A. Farzam, B. Hassani, Thermal and mechanical buckling analysis of FG carbon nanotube reinforced composite plates using modified couple stress theory and isogeometric approach, Compos. Struct., 206 (2018) 774-790.
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[20] J. Kim, K.K. Źur, J.N. Reddy, Bending, free vibration, and buckling of modified couples stress-based functionally graded porous micro-plates, Compos. Struct., 209 (2019) 879-888.
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[24] S. Hosseini-Hashemi, K. Khorshidi, M. Amabili, Exact solution for linear buckling of rec-tangular Mindlin plates, J. Sound Vib., 315(1-2) (2008) 318-342.
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[25] A. Hassani, M. Gholami, Analytical and numerical bending solutions for thermoelastic functionally graded rotating disks with nonuniform thickness based on mindlin’s theory, J. Stress Anal., 2(1) (2017) 35-49.
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ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Analysis of Bi-directional FG Porous Sandwich Beams in Hygrothermal Environment Resting on Winkler/Pasternak Foundation, Based on the Layerwise Theory and Chebyshev Tau Method
In this paper, for the first time, displacement and stress analysis of bidirectional functionally graded (BDFG) porous sandwich beams are developed using the Chebyshev tau method. Based on the presented approach, sandwich beams under non-uniform load rested on Winkler/Pasternak foundation are analyzed. The material properties of core and each face sheet can be varied continuously in the axial and thickness directions, also the material properties are affected by the variation of temperature and moisture. To overcome some of the shortcomings of the traditional equivalent single layer theories for analysis of sandwich structures, governing equations are extracted based on the layerwise theory and five coupled differential equations are obtained. The resulting differential equations are solved using the Chebyshev tau method (CTM). The effectiveness of the CTM is demonstrated by comparing the obtained results with those extracted from the ABAQUS software. The comparisons indicate that the applied method to solve the systems of ordinary differential equations is efficient and very good accurate.
https://jrstan.basu.ac.ir/article_2997_abe2d8184d8f4bce77a74b2d2fa0d3ce.pdf
2019-09-01
137
150
10.22084/jrstan.2019.18781.1090
Chebyshev tau method
Bi-directional functionally graded
Porous sandwich beams
Elastic foundation
Layerwise theory
M.
Matinfar
m.matinfar@umz.ac.ir
1
Department of Mathematics, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
AUTHOR
M.
Mahdavi Shirazi
m.mahdavi@stu.umz.ac.ir
2
Department of Mathematics, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
AUTHOR
M.
M. Alipour
m.mollaalipour@umz.ac.ir
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
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