We acknowledge Clara Deser, Chunzai Wang, Lixin Wu, Qinyu Liu, Michelle L’Heureux, and Ben Kirtman for their insightful suggestions and Bob Tomas for his help in providing NCAR CCSM4 simulations. Comments from anonymous reviewers are helpful to improve the original manuscript. We would also like to thank the various international modeling groups participating in CMIP3. NCEP Reanalysis and GPCP data is provided by the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado (from their website at http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/). This work was funded by NOAA, U.S. DOE, and by NSF Climate and Large-Scale Dynamics Program.
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The latent heat flux in models is calculated via the bulk formula