We acknowledge Clara Deser, Chunzai Wang, Lixin Wu, Qinyu Liu, Michelle L’Heureux, and Ben Kirtman for their insightful suggestions and Bob Tomas for his help in providing NCAR CCSM4 simulations. Comments from anonymous reviewers are helpful to improve the original manuscript. We would also like to thank the various international modeling groups participating in CMIP3. NCEP Reanalysis and GPCP data is provided by the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado (from their website at http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/). This work was funded by NOAA, U.S. DOE, and by NSF Climate and Large-Scale Dynamics Program.
Adler, R. F., and Coauthors, 2003: The version 2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–present). J. Hydrometeor., 4, 1147–1167.
Barnett, T. P., D. W. Pierce, M. Latif, D. Dommenget, and R. Saravanan, 1999: Interdecadal interactions between the tropics and midlatitudes in the Pacific basin. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 615–618.
Bellomo, K., A. C. Clement, J. R. Norris, and B. J. Soden, 2013: Observational and model estimates of cloud amount feedback over the Indian and Pacific Oceans. J. Climate, in press.
Chang, P., L. Ji, and H. Li, 1997: A decadal climate variation in the tropical Atlantic Ocean from thermodynamic air–sea interactions. Nature, 385, 516–518.
Chang, P., L. Zhang, R. Saravanan, D. J. Vimont, J. C. H. Chiang, L. Ji, H. Seidel, and M. K. Tippett, 2007: Pacific meridional mode and El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L16608, doi:10.1029/2007GL030302.
Chiang, J. C. H., and D. J. Vimont, 2004: Analogous Pacific and Atlantic meridional modes of tropical atmosphere–ocean variability. J. Climate, 17, 4143–4158.
Clement, A. C., R. Burgman, and J. Norris, 2009: Observational and model evidence for positive low-level cloud feedback. Science, 325, 460–464, doi:10.1126/science.1171255.
Clement, A. C., R. Burgman, and J. Norris, 2010: Response to comment on “Observational and model evidence for positive low-level cloud feedback.” Science,329, 277.
Clement, A. C., P. DiNezio, and C. Deser, 2011: Rethinking the ocean’s role in the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 24, 4056–4072.
Deser, C., and A. S. Phillips, 2006: Simulation of the 1976/77 climate transition over the North Pacific: Sensitivity to tropical forcing. J. Climate, 19, 6170–6180.
Deser, C., A. S. Phillips, and J. W. Hurrell, 2004: Pacific interdecadal climate variability: Linkages between the tropics and the North Pacific during boreal winter since 1900. J. Climate, 17, 3109–3124.
Ding, Q., E. J. Steig, D. Battisti, and M. Kuttel, 2011: Winter warming in west Antarctic caused by central tropical Pacific warming. Nat. Geosci., 4, 398–403.
Jin, D., and B. P. Kirtman, 2009: Why the Southern Hemisphere ENSO responses lead ENSO. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D23101, doi:10.1029/2009JD012657.
Kitoh, A., T. Motoi, and H. Koide, 1999: SST variability and its mechanism in a coupled atmosphere–mixed layer ocean model. J. Climate, 12, 1221–1239.
Lachlan-Cope, T. A., and W. M. Connolley, 2006: Teleconnections between the tropical Pacific and the Amundsen-Bellinghausens Sea: Role of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D23101, doi:10.1029/2005JD006386.
Lachlan-Cope, T. A., W. M. Connolley, and J. Turner, 2001: The role of the nonaxisymmetric Antarctic orography in forcing the observed pattern of variability of the Antarctic climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 4111–4114.
Liu, Z., and S.-P. Xie, 1994: Equatorward propagation of coupled air–sea disturbances with application to the annual cycle of the eastern tropical Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 3807–3822.
Matei, D., N. Keenlyside, M. Latif, and J. Jungclaus, 2008: Subtropical forcing of tropical Pacific climate and decadal ENSO modulation. J. Climate, 21, 4691–4709.
Mitchell, T. P., and J. M. Wallace, 1992: On the annual cycle in equatorial convection and sea surface temperature. J. Climate, 5, 1140–1156.
Nobre, P., and J. Shukla, 1996: Variations of sea surface temperature, wind stress, and rainfall over the tropical Atlantic and South America. J. Climate, 9, 2464–2479.
Okumura, Y., 2013: Origins of tropical Pacific decadal variability: Role of stochastic atmospheric forcing from the South Pacific. J. Climate, in press.
Pierce, D. W., T. P. Barnett, and M. Latif, 2000: Connections between the Pacific Ocean tropics and midlatitudes on decadal timescales. J. Climate, 13, 1173–1194.
Rayner, N. A., D. E. Parker, E. B. Horton, C. K. Folland, L. V. Alexander, and D. P. Rowell, 2003: Global analyses of SST, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4407, doi:10.1029/2002JD002670.
Smith, T. M., R. W. Reynolds, T. C. Peterson, and J. Lawrimore, 2008: Improvements to NOAA’s historical merged land–ocean surface temperature analysis (1880–2006). J. Climate, 21, 2283–2296.
Terray, P., 2010: Southern Hemisphere extratropical forcing: A new paradigm for El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Climate Dyn., 36, 2171–2199, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0825-z.
Terray, P., and S. Dominiak, 2005: Indian Ocean sea surface temperature and El Niño–Southern Oscillation: A new perspective. J. Climate, 18, 1351–1368.
Toniazzo, T., 2009: Climate variability in the south-eastern tropical Pacific and its relation with ENSO: A GCM study. Climate Dyn., 34, 1093–1114, doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0602-z.
van Loon, H., and D. J. Shea, 1985: The Southern Oscillation. Part IV: The precursors south of 15°S to the extremes of the oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 2063–2074.
van Loon, H., G. A. Meehl, and R. F. Millif, 2003: The Southern Oscillation in the early 1990s. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1478, doi:10.1029/2002GL016307.
Vimont, D. J., D. S. Battisti, and A. C. Hirst, 2001: Footprinting: A seasonal connection between the tropics and mid-latitudes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3923–3926.
Vimont, D. J., D. S. Battisti, and A. C. Hirst, 2003a: The seasonal footprinting mechanism in the CSIRO general circulation models. J. Climate, 16, 2653–2667.
Vimont, D. J., J. M. Wallace, and D. S. Battisti, 2003b: The seasonal footprinting mechanism in the Pacific: Implications for ENSO. J. Climate, 16, 2668–2675.
Vimont, D. J., M. Alexander, and A. Fontaine, 2009: Midlatitude excitation of tropical variability in the Pacific: The role of thermodynamic coupling and seasonality. J. Climate, 22, 518–534.
Wang, F., 2010a: Subtropical dipole mode in the Southern Hemisphere: A global view. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L10702, doi:10.1029/2010GL042750.
Wang, F., 2010b: Thermodynamical coupled modes in the tropical atmosphere–ocean: An analytical solution. J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 1667–1677.
Xie, S. P., and S. G. H. Philander, 1994: A coupled ocean-atmosphere model of relevance to the ITCZ in the eastern Pacific. Tellus, 46A, 340–350.
The latent heat flux in models is calculated via the bulk formula