We are greatly indebted to those who contributed to the observational datasets used in this study. Comments from two anonymous reviewers have improved the overall quality of this paper. Computational facilities were provided by the Center for Ocean–Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS), the Florida State University. Yangxing Zheng was supported by U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant OCE-0453046, AGS 0966844, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Physical Oceanography support of the Ocean Vector Winds Science Team (OVWST). Renhe Zhang was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 41221064 and the Special Scientific Research Project of China Commonweal Trade (meteorology) under Grant GYHY201306018. Mark Bourassa was supported by the NASA OVWST and NOAA Climate Observing Division (COD).
Ashok, K., S. K. Behera, S. A. Rao, H. Weng, and T. Yamagata, 2007: El Niño Modoki and its possible teleconnection. J. Geophys. Res., 112, C11007, doi:10.1029/2006JC003798.
Battisti, D. S., 1988: Dynamics and thermodynamics of a warming event in a coupled tropical atmosphere–ocean model. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 2889–2919.
Battisti, D. S., and A. C. Hirst, 1989: Interannual variability in a tropical atmosphere–ocean model: Influence of the basic state, ocean geometry and nonlinearity. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 1687–1712.
Boyd, J. P., 1978: The effects of latitudinal shear on equatorial waves. Part II: Application to the atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 2295–2267.
Chu, P. S., 1988: Extratropical forcing and the burst of equatorial westerlies in the western Pacific: A synoptic study. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 66, 549–563.
Compo, G. P., G. N. Kiladis, and P. J. Webster, 1999: The horizontal and vertical structure of East Asian winter monsoon pressure surges. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125, 29–54.
Gutzler, D. S., 1991: Interannual fluctuations of intraseasonal variance of near-equatorial zonal winds. J. Geophys. Res., 96 (S01), 3172–3185.
Hendon, H. H., and H. B. Liebmann, 1990: A composite study of onset of the Australian summer monsoon. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 2227–2240.
Hendon, H. H., and H. B. Liebmann, 1994: Organization of convection within the Madden-Julian oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 99 (D4), 8073–8083.
Hendon, H. H., H. B. Liebmann, and J. D. Glick, 1998: Oceanic Kelvin waves and the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 88–101.
Huang, R., X. Zang, R. Zhang, and J. Chen, 1998: The westerly anomalies over the tropical Pacific and their dynamical effect on the ENSO cycles during 1980-1994. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 15, 135–151.
Keen, R. A., 1982: The role of cross-equatorial tropical cyclone pairs in the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 1405–1416.
Keen, R. A., 1988: Equatorial westerly and the Southern Oscillation. Proc. Western Pacific Air-Sea Interaction Workshop, Honolulu, HI, U.S. TOGA, 121–140.
Kiladis, G. N., and H. V. Loon, 1988: The Southern Oscillation. Part VII: Meteorological anomalies over the Indian and Pacific sectors associated with the extremes of the oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 120–136.
Kiladis, G. N., G. A. Meehl, and K. M. Weickmann, 1994: Large-scale circulation associated with westerly wind bursts and deep convection over the western equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 99 (D9), 18 527–18 544.
Kug, J.-S., F.-F. Jin, and S.-I. An, 2009: Two types of El Niño events: Cold tongue El Niño and warm pool El Niño. J. Climate, 22, 1499–1515.
Larkin, N. K., and D. E. Harrison, 2005a: On the definition of El Niño and associated seasonal average U.S. weather anomalies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L13705, doi:10.1029/2005GL022738.
Larkin, N. K., and D. E. Harrison, 2005b: Global seasonal temperature and precipitation anomalies during El Niño autumn and winter. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L16705, doi:10.1029/2005GL022860.
Lau, K. M., and H. Lim, 1982: Thermally driven motions in an equatorial -plane: Hadley and Walker circulations during the winter monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 336–353.
Lau, K. M., M. L. Peng, C. H. Sui, and T. Nakazawa, 1989: Super cloud clusters, westerly wind burst, 30–60 day oscillation, and ENSO: A unified view. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 67, 205–219.
Lim, H., and C. P. Chang, 1981: A theory for midlatitude forcing of tropical motions during winter monsoons. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 2377–2392.
Rasmusson, E. M., and T. H. Carpenter, 1982: Variations in tropical sea surface temperature and surface wind fields associated with the Southern Oscillation and El Niño. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 354–384.
Rong, X., R. Zhang, T. Li, and J. Su, 2011: Upscale feedback of high-frequency winds to ENSO. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 894–907.
Sakai, K., and R. Kawamura, 2009: Remote response of the East Asian winter monsoon to tropical forcing related to El Niño–Southern Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D06105, doi:10.1029/2008JD010824.
Smith, T. M., R. W. Reynolds, T. C. Peterson, and J. Lawrimore, 2008: Improvements to NOAA’s historical merged land–ocean surface temperature analysis (1880–2006). J. Climate, 21, 2283–2296.
Sui, C. H., and K. M. Lau, 1992: Multi-scale phenomena in the tropical atmosphere over the western Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev., 120, 407–430.
Wang, L., R. Huang, L. Gu, W. Chen, and L. Kang, 2009: Interdecadal variations of the East Asian winter monsoon and their association with quasi-stationary planetary wave activity. J. Climate, 22, 4860–4872.
Webster, P. J., 1987: The elementary monsoon. Monsoons, J. S. Fein and P. L. Stephens, Eds., Wiley Interscience, 3–32.
Xu, J., and J. C. L. Chan, 2001: The role of the Asian–Australian monsoon system in the onset time of El Niño events. J. Climate, 14, 418–433.
Xue, Y., T. Smith, and R. W. Reynolds, 2003: Interdecadal changes of 30-yr SST normals during 1871–2000. J. Climate, 16, 1601–1612.
Yu, L., and M. M. Rienecher, 1998: Evidence of an extropical atmospheric influence during the onset of the 1997-98 El Niño. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3537–3540.
Zhang, R., and R. Huang, 1998: The dynamic impacts of tropical zonal wind stress in the onset and decay of El Niño events. Part I: Data diagnostics and theoretic analysis. Chin.J. Atmos. Sci., 22, 587–599.
Zhang, R., A. Sumi, and M. Kimoto, 1996: Impact of El Niño on the East Asian monsoon: A diagnostic study of the ’86/87 and ’91/92 events. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 74, 49–62.
Zhang, R., G. Zhao, and Y. Tan, 2001: Meridional wind stress anomalies over tropical Pacific and the onset of El Niño. Part I: Data analysis. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 18, 467–480.