MODIS data were obtained from the Level 1 and Atmospheric Distribution System at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. MISR data files were obtained from the NASA Langley Atmospheric Sciences Data Center. CloudSat–CALIPSO GEOPROF-LIDAR data were obtained from the Cloudsat Data Processing Center. AMSR-E ocean products were obtained from the National Snow and Ice Data Center. AIRS level-2 files and MERRA files were obtained from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center. ERA-Interim files were obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Meteorological Archival and Retrieval System. This work was funded by NASA CloudSat Science team Grant NNX10AM20G to CMN and RTOP to ADD, and by NASA the Science of Terra and Aqua Grant NNX11AH22G to CMN. JFB was funded by a NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellowship. The authors thank the editor, Jay Mace, and two anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments that have helped significantly improve this manuscript.
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