This work was funded in part by grants from the NOAA Climate Program Office (NA09OAR4310109), the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (DE-SC0005467), and the National Science Foundation (ATM-0902735). The efforts of A.M.D. were also supported by a fellowship from the Environmental Protection Agency Science to Achieve Results (EPA STAR) program and by the Regional and Global Climate Modeling Program of the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy. We acknowledge the World Climate Research Programme’s Working Group on Coupled Modelling, which is responsible for CMIP5, and we thank the climate modelling groups (listed in Table 1 of this paper) for producing and making available their model output. For CMIP5, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison provides coordinating support and led development of software infrastructure in partnership with the Global Organization for Earth System Science Portals. CRU temperature observations were provided by the Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, from their Web site at https://crudata.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/hrg/. The writers also acknowledge the helpful comments and suggestions by three anonymous reviewers.
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