• Alkama, R., and A. Cescatti, 2016: Biophysical climate impacts of recent changes in global forest cover. Science, 351, 600604, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aac8083.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bonan, G. B., 2008: Forests and climate change: Forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests. Science, 320, 14441449, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1155121.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, F. J., and G. Schädler, 2005: Comparison of soil hydraulic parameterizations for mesoscale meteorological models. J. Appl. Meteor., 44, 11161132, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2259.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Breil, M., and G. Schädler, 2017: Quantification of the uncertainties in soil and vegetation parameterizations for regional climate simulations in Europe. J. Hydrometeor., 18, 15351548, https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-16-0226.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Breil, M., H. J. Panitz, and G. Schädler, 2017: Impact of soil–vegetation–atmosphere interactions on the spatial rainfall distribution in the central Sahel. Meteor. Z., 26, 379389, https://doi.org/10.1127/metz/2017/0819.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burakowski, E., A. Tawfik, A. Ouimette, L. Lepine, K. Novick, S. Ollinger, C. Zarzycki, and G. Bonan, 2018: The role of surface roughness, albedo, and Bowen ratio on ecosystem energy balance in the eastern United States. Agric. For. Meteor., 249, 367376, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.11.030.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cherubini, F., N. Huang, X. Hu, M. H. Tölle, and A. H. Strømman, 2018: Quantifying the climate response to extreme land cover changes in Europe with a regional model. Environ. Res. Lett., 13, 074002, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aac794.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christensen, J. H., and O. B. Christensen, 2007: A summary of the PRUDENCE model projections of changes in European climate by the end of this century. Climatic Change, 81, 730, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-006-9210-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davin, E. L., and N. de Noblet-Ducoudré, 2010: Climatic impact of global-scale deforestation: Radiative versus nonradiative processes. J. Climate, 23, 97112, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI3102.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davin, E. L., S. I. Seneviratne, P. Ciais, A. Olioso, and T. Wang, 2014: Preferential cooling of hot extremes from cropland albedo management. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 111, 97579761, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1317323111.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davin, E. L., and Coauthors, 2020: Biogeophysical impacts of forestation in Europe: First results from the LUCAS (Land Use and Climate Across Scales) regional climate model intercomparison. Earth Syst. Dyn., 11, 183200, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-11-183-2020.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deardorff, J., 1978: Efficient prediction of ground surface temperature and moisture, with inclusion of a layer of vegetation. J. Geophys. Res., 83, 18891903, https://doi.org/10.1029/JC083iC04p01889.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dee, D. P., and Coauthors, 2011: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 553597, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.828.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Noblet-Ducoudré, N., and Coauthors, 2012: Determining robust impacts of land-use-induced land cover changes on surface climate over North America and Eurasia: Results from the first set of LUCID experiments. J. Climate, 25, 32613281, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00338.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duveiller, G., J. Hooker, and A. Cescatti, 2018a: The mark of vegetation change on Earth’s surface energy balance. Nat. Commun., 9, 679, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-02810-8.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duveiller, G., and Coauthors, 2018b: Biophysics and vegetation cover change: A process-based evaluation framework for confronting land surface models with satellite observations. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 12651279, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-10-1265-2018.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gálos, B., S. Hagemann, A. Hänsler, G. Kindermann, D. Rechid, K. Sieck, C. Teichmann, and D. Jacob, 2013: Case study for the assessment of the biogeophysical effects of a potential afforestation in Europe. Carbon Balance Manage., 8, 3, https://doi.org/10.1186/1750-0680-8-3.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jacob, D., and R. Podzun, 1997: Sensitivity studies with the regional climate model REMO. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 63, 119129, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01025368.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jacob, D., and Coauthors, 2012: Assessing the transferability of the regional climate model REMO to different COordinated Regional Climate Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX) regions. Atmosphere, 3, 181199, https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos3010181.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jacob, D., and Coauthors, 2014: EURO-CORDEX: New high-resolution climate change projections for European impact research. Reg. Environ. Change, 14, 563578, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-013-0499-2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jia, G., and Coauthors, 2019: Land–climate interactions. Climate Change and Land: An IPCC Special Report on Climate Change, Desertification, Land Degradation, Sustainable Land Management, Food Security, and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Terrestrial Ecosystems, J. Skea et al., Eds., IPCC, 131–247.

  • Kumar, S., P. A. Dirmeyer, V. Merwade, T. DelSole, J. M. Adams, and D. Niyogi, 2013: Land use/cover change impacts in CMIP5 climate simulations: A new methodology and 21st century challenges. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 63376353, https://doi.org/10.1002/JGRD.50463.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laguë, M. M., and A. L. Swann, 2016: Progressive midlatitude afforestation: Impacts on clouds, global energy transport, and precipitation. J. Climate, 29, 55615573, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0748.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laguë, M. M., G. B. Bonan, and A. L. Swann, 2019: Separating the impact of individual land surface properties on the terrestrial surface energy budget in both the coupled and uncoupled land–atmosphere system. J. Climate, 32, 57255744, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0812.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lawrence, P. J., and T. N. Chase, 2007: Representing a new MODIS consistent land surface in the Community Land Model (CLM 3.0). J. Geophys. Res., 112, G01023, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JG000168.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, X., and Coauthors, 2011: Observed increase in local cooling effect of deforestation at higher latitudes. Nature, 479, 384387, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10588.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lejeune, Q., E. L. Davin, B. P. Guillod, and S. I. Seneviratne, 2015: Influence of Amazonian deforestation on the future evolution of regional surface fluxes, circulation, surface temperature and precipitation. Climate Dyn., 44, 27692786, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-014-2203-8.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lejeune, Q., S. I. Seneviratne, and E. L. Davin, 2017: Historical land-cover change impacts on climate: Comparative assessment of LUCID and CMIP5 multimodel experiments. J. Climate, 30, 14391459, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0213.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lejeune, Q., E. L. Davin, L. Gudmundsson, J. Winckler, and S. I. Seneviratne, 2018: Historical deforestation locally increased the intensity of hot days in northern mid-latitudes. Nat. Climate Change, 8, 386390, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-018-0131-z.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, Y., M. Zhao, S. Motesharrei, Q. Mu, E. Kalnay, and S. Li, 2015: Local cooling and warming effects of forests based on satellite observations. Nat. Commun., 6, 6603, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms7603.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meier, R., and Coauthors, 2018: Evaluating and improving the Community Land Model’s sensitivity to land cover. Biogeosciences, 15, 47314757, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-4731-2018.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Monin, A., and A. Obukhov, 1954: Basic laws of turbulent mixing in the surface layer of the atmosphere. Contrib. Geophys. Inst. Acad. Sci. USSR, 151, e187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Naudts, K., Y. Chen, M. J. McGrath, J. Ryder, A. Valade, J. Otto, and S. Luyssaert, 2016: Europe’s forest management did not mitigate climate warming. Science, 351, 597600, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aad7270.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Niu, G. Y., and Coauthors, 2011: The community Noah land surface model with multiparameterization options (Noah-MP): 1. Model description and evaluation with local-scale measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D12109, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD015139.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oleson, K. W., and Coauthors, 2010: Technical description of version 4.0 of the Community Land Model (CLM). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-478+STR, 257 pp., https://doi.org/10.5065/D6FB50WZ.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Oleson, K. W., and Coauthors, 2013: Technical description of version 4.5 of the Community Land Model (CLM). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-503+STR, 420 pp., https://doi.org/10.5065/D6RR1W7M.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Perugini, L., L. Caporaso, S. Marconi, A. Cescatti, B. Quesada, N. de Noblet-Ducoudré, J. I. House, and A. Arneth, 2017: Biophysical effects on temperature and precipitation due to land cover change. Environ. Res. Lett., 12, 053002, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa6b3f.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rechid, D., E. L. Davin, N. de Noblet-Ducoudré, and E. Katragkou, 2017: CORDEX Flagship Pilot Study “LUCAS–Land Use & Climate Across Scales”—A new initiative on coordinated regional land use change and climate experiments for Europe. Proc. 19th EGU General Assembly, EGU2017, Vienna, Austria, European Geophysical Union, 13172.

  • Rockel, B., A. Will, and A. Hense, 2008: The regional climate model COSMO-CLM (CCLM). Meteor. Z., 17, 347348, https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2008/0309.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schädler, G., 1990: Numerische Simulationen zur Wechselwirkung zwischen Landoberfläche und atmosphärischer Grenzschicht. Ph.D. dissertation, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Universität Karlsruhe, 217 pp.

  • Schrodin, E., and E. Heise, 2002: A new multi-layer soil model. COSMO Newsletter, No. 2, Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling, Offenbach, Germany, 149–151, http://www.cosmo-model.org/content/model/documentation/newsLetters/newsLetter02/newsLetter_02.pdf.

  • Schultz, N. M., P. J. Lawrence, and X. Lee, 2017: Global satellite data highlights the diurnal asymmetry of the surface temperature response to deforestation. J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosci., 122, 903917, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JG003653.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schwaab, J., E. Davin, P. Bebi, A. Duguay-Tetzlaff, L. Waser, and R. Meier, 2020: Increasing the broad-leaved tree fraction in European forests mitigates hot temperature extremes. Sci. Rep., 10, 14153, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71055-1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Skamarock, W. C., and Coauthors, 2008: A description of the Advanced Research WRF version 3. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-475+STR, 113 pp., https://doi.org/10.5065/D68S4MVH.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Swann, A. L., I. Y. Fung, and J. C. Chiang, 2012: Mid-latitude afforestation shifts general circulation and tropical precipitation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 109, 712716, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1116706108.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tang, B., X. Zhao, and W. Zhao, 2018: Local effects of forests on temperatures across Europe. Remote Sens., 10, 529, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10040529.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tölle, M. H., M. Breil, K. Radtke, and H. J. Panitz, 2018: Sensitivity of European temperature to albedo parameterization in the regional climate model COSMO-CLM linked to extreme land use changes. Front. Environ. Sci., 6, 123, 10.3389/fenvs.2018.00123; Corrigendum, 7, 12, https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2019.00012.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilhelm, C., D. Rechid, and D. Jacob, 2014: Interactive coupling of regional atmosphere with biosphere in the new generation regional climate system model REMO-iMOVE. Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 10931114, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-7-1093-2014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Winckler, J., and Coauthors, 2019: Different response of surface temperature and air temperature to deforestation in climate models. Earth Syst. Dyn., 10, 473484, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-10-473-2019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 113 113 67
Full Text Views 25 25 16
PDF Downloads 37 37 18

The Opposing Effects of Reforestation and Afforestation on the Diurnal Temperature Cycle at the Surface and in the Lowest Atmospheric Model Level in the European Summer

View More View Less
  • 1 Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • 2 Climate Service Center Germany, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Hamburg, Germany
  • 3 Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 4 Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • 5 Department of Meteorology and Climatology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
  • 6 Instituto Dom Luiz, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
  • 7 Institute of Physics and Meteorology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany
  • 8 International Center for Theoretical Physics, Earth System Physics Section, Trieste, Italy
  • 9 Rossby Centre, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden
  • 10 Department of Geography, Climatology, Climate Dynamics and Climate Change, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

The biophysical effects of reforestation and afforestation (herein jointly called re/afforestation) on the diurnal temperature cycle in European summer are investigated by analyzing a regional climate model (RCM) ensemble, established within the Land Use and Climate Across Scales Flagship Pilot Study (LUCAS FPS). With this RCM ensemble, two idealized experiments are performed for Europe, one with a continent with maximized forest cover, and one in which all forests are turned into grassland. First, an in-depth analysis of one ensemble member (“CCLM-VEG3D”) is carried out, to reveal the complex process chain caused by such land use changes (LUCs). From these findings, the whole ensemble is analyzed and principal biophysical effects of re/afforestation are derived. Results show that the diurnal temperature range is reduced at the surface (top of the vegetation) with re/afforestation. Most RCMs simulate colder surface temperatures Tsurf during the day and warmer Tsurf during the night. Thus, for the first time, the principal temperature interrelations found in observation-based studies in the midlatitudes could be reproduced within a model intercomparison study. On the contrary, the diurnal temperature range in the lowest atmospheric model level (Tair) is increased with re/afforestation. This opposing temperature response is mainly caused by the higher surface roughness of forest, enhancing the turbulent heat exchange. Furthermore, these opposing temperature responses demonstrate that the use of the diagnostic 2-m temperature (weighted interpolation between Tsurf and Tair) has a limited potential to assess the effects of re/afforestation. Thus, studies about the biophysical impacts of LUCs should investigate the whole near-surface temperature profile.

Denotes content that is immediately available upon publication as open access.

Corresponding author: M. Breil, marcus.breil@kit.edu

Abstract

The biophysical effects of reforestation and afforestation (herein jointly called re/afforestation) on the diurnal temperature cycle in European summer are investigated by analyzing a regional climate model (RCM) ensemble, established within the Land Use and Climate Across Scales Flagship Pilot Study (LUCAS FPS). With this RCM ensemble, two idealized experiments are performed for Europe, one with a continent with maximized forest cover, and one in which all forests are turned into grassland. First, an in-depth analysis of one ensemble member (“CCLM-VEG3D”) is carried out, to reveal the complex process chain caused by such land use changes (LUCs). From these findings, the whole ensemble is analyzed and principal biophysical effects of re/afforestation are derived. Results show that the diurnal temperature range is reduced at the surface (top of the vegetation) with re/afforestation. Most RCMs simulate colder surface temperatures Tsurf during the day and warmer Tsurf during the night. Thus, for the first time, the principal temperature interrelations found in observation-based studies in the midlatitudes could be reproduced within a model intercomparison study. On the contrary, the diurnal temperature range in the lowest atmospheric model level (Tair) is increased with re/afforestation. This opposing temperature response is mainly caused by the higher surface roughness of forest, enhancing the turbulent heat exchange. Furthermore, these opposing temperature responses demonstrate that the use of the diagnostic 2-m temperature (weighted interpolation between Tsurf and Tair) has a limited potential to assess the effects of re/afforestation. Thus, studies about the biophysical impacts of LUCs should investigate the whole near-surface temperature profile.

Denotes content that is immediately available upon publication as open access.

Corresponding author: M. Breil, marcus.breil@kit.edu
Save