• Adler, R. F., and Coauthors, 2003: The version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–present). J. Hydrometeor., 4, 11471167, https://doi.org/10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004<1147:TVGPCP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, T. P., L. Dümenil, U. Schlese, and E. Roeckner, 1988: The effect of Eurasian snow cover on global climate. Science, 239, 504507, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.239.4839.504.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, T. P., L. Dümenil, U. Schlese, E. Roeckner, and M. Latif, 1989: The effect of Eurasian snow cover on regional and global climate variations. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 661686, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1989)046<0661:TEOESC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blanford, H. F., 1884: On the connexion of the Himalaya snowfall with dry winds and seasons of drought in India. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, 37, 322, https://doi.org/10.1098/rspl.1884.0003.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boyle, J. S., and T.-J. Chen, 1987: Synoptic aspects of the wintertime East Asian monsoon. Monsoon Meteorology, C.-P. Chang and T. N. Krishnamurti, Eds., Oxford University Press, 125–160.

  • Brodzik, M., and R. Armstrong, 2013: Northern Hemisphere EASE-grid 2.0 weekly snow cover and sea ice extent, version 4. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center, accessed October 2018, https://doi.org/10.5067/P7O0HGJLYUQU.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Chan, J., and C. Li, 2004: The East Asia winter monsoon. East Asian Monsoon, C.-P. Chang, Ed., World Scientific, 54–106.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, C.-P., and K.-M. Lau, 1980: Northeasterly cold surges and near-equatorial disturbances over winter MONEX area during December 1974. Part II: Planetary scale aspects. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 298312, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1980)108<0298:NCSANE>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, C.-P., and K.-M. Lau, 1982: Short-term planetary-scale interactions over the tropics and midlatitudes during northern winter. Part I: Contrasts between active and inactive periods. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 933946, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1982)110<0933:STPSIO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, C.-P., Y. Zhang, and T. Li, 2000: Interannual and interdecadal variations of the East Asian summer monsoon and tropical Pacific SSTs. Part I: Roles of the subtropical ridge. J. Climate, 13, 43104325, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<4310:IAIVOT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, C.-P., Z. Wang, and H. Hendon, 2006: The Asian winter monsoon. The Asian Monsoon, B. Wang, Ed., Springer, 89–127.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, W., H. Graf, and R. H. Huang, 2000: The interannual variability of East Asian winter monsoon and its relation to the summer monsoon. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 17, 4860, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-000-0042-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, W., S. Yang, and R. H. Huang, 2005: Relationship between stationary planetary wave activity and the East Asian winter monsoon. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D14110, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005669.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, W., J. Feng, and R. G. Wu, 2013: Roles of ENSO and PDO in the link of the East Asian winter monsoon to the following summer monsoon. J. Climate, 26, 622635, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00021.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheung, H. N., W. Zhou, H. Y. Mok, and M. Wu, 2012: Relationship between Ural–Siberian blocking and the East Asian winter monsoon in relation to the Arctic oscillation and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 25, 42424257, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00225.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chiang, J. C. H., and Coauthors, 2015: Role of seasonal transitions and westerly jets in East Asian paleoclimate. Quat. Sci. Rev., 108, 111129, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.11.009.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chiang, J. C. H., L. M. Swenson, and W. Kong, 2017: Role of seasonal transitions and the westerlies in the interannual variability of the East Asian summer monsoon precipitation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 37883795, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL072739.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chowdary, J. S., K. Hu, G. Srinivas, Y. Kosaka, L. Wang, and K. K. Rao, 2019: The Eurasian jet streams as conduits for East Asian monsoon variability. Curr. Climate Change Rep., 5, 233244, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40641-019-00134-x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J., 1994: Snow cover and climate. Weather, 49, 150156, https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1477-8696.1994.tb05997.x.

  • Cohen, J., and D. Rind, 1991: The effect of snow cover on climate. J. Climate, 4, 689706, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1991)004<0689:TEOSCO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J., and D. Entekhabi, 1999: Eurasian snow cover variability and Northern Hemisphere climate predictability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 345348, https://doi.org/10.1029/1998GL900321.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J., and D. Entekhabi, 2001: The influence of snow cover on Northern Hemisphere climate variability. Atmos.–Ocean, 39, 3553, https://doi.org/10.1080/07055900.2001.9649665.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J., K. Saito, and D. Entekhabi, 2001: The role of the Siberian high in Northern Hemisphere climate variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 299302, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000GL011927.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dee, D. P., and Coauthors, 2011: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 553597, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.828.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ding, Y., 1994: Monsoon over China. Kluwer Academic, 420 pp.

  • Ding, Y., and T. N. Krishnamurti, 1987: Heat budget of the Siberian high and the winter monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 24282449, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1987)115<2428:HBOTSH>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gong, D., S. Wang, and J. Zhu, 2001: East Asian winter monsoon and Arctic Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 20732076, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000GL012311.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hahn, D. G., and J. Shukla, 1976: An apparent relationship between the Eurasian snow cover and Indian monsoon rainfall. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 24612462, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1976)033<2461:AARBES>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Halder, S., and P. A. Dirmeyer, 2017: Relation of Eurasian snow cover and Indian summer monsoon rainfall: Importance of the delayed hydrological effect. J. Climate, 30, 12731289, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0033.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henderson, G. R., Y. Peings, J. C. Furtado, and P. J. Kushner, 2018: Snow–atmosphere coupling in the Northern Hemisphere. Nat. Climate Change, 8, 954963, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-018-0295-6.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hurrell, J. W., and Coauthors, 2013: The Community Earth System Model: A framework for collaborative research. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94, 13391360, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00121.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jeong, J.-H., and C.-H. Ho, 2005: Changes in occurrence of cold surges over East Asia in association with Arctic Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L14704, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL023024.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jhun, J.-G., and E.-J. Lee, 2004: A new East Asian winter monsoon index and associated characteristics of the winter monsoon. J. Climate, 17, 711726, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<0711:ANEAWM>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kong, W., and J. C. H. Chiang, 2020: Interaction of the westerlies with the Tibetan Plateau in determining the mei-yu termination. J. Climate, 33, 339363, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0319.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, K. M., and M. T. Li, 1984: The monsoon of East Asia and its global associations—A survey. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 65, 114125, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1984)065%3c0114:TMOEAA%3e2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, C., 1990: Interaction between anomalous winter monsoon in East Asia and El Niño events. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 7, 3646, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02919166.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, Q., S. Yang, T. Wu, and X. Liu, 2017: Sub-seasonal dynamical prediction of East Asian cold surges. Wea. Forecasting, 32, 16751694, https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-16-0209.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, Y., and S. Yang, 2010: A dynamical index for the East Asian winter monsoon. J. Climate, 23, 42554262, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3375.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, Y., and S. Yang, 2017: Feedback attributions to the dominant modes of East Asian winter monsoon variations. J. Climate, 30, 905920, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0275.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, X. D., and M. Yanai, 2002: Influence of Eurasian spring snow cover on Asian summer rainfall. Int. J. Climatol., 22, 10751089, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.784.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lu, M., R. Wu, S. Yang, and Z. Wang, 2020: Relationships between Eurasian cold-season snows and Asian summer monsoons: Regional characteristics and seasonality (in Chinese). Trans. Atmos. Sci., 43, 93103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luo, X., and B. Wang, 2019: How autumn Eurasian snow anomalies affect East Asian winter monsoon: A numerical study. Climate Dyn., 52, 6982, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-018-4138-y.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Molnar, P., W. R. Boos, and D. S. Battisti, 2010: Orographic controls on climate and paleoclimate of Asia: Thermal and mechanical roles for the Tibetan Plateau. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 38, 77102, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-earth-040809-152456.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neale, R. B., J. Richter, S. Park, P. H. Lauritzen, S. J. Vavrus, P. J. Rasch, and M. Zhang, 2013: The mean climate of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) in forced SST and fully coupled experiments. J. Climate, 26, 51505168, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00236.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Notaro, M., and A. Zarrin, 2011: Sensitivity of the North American monsoon to antecedent Rocky Mountain snowpack. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L17403, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL048803.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, T.-W., C.-H. Ho, S. Yang, and J.-H. Jeong, 2010: Influences of Arctic Oscillation and Madden–Julian Oscillation on cold surges and heavy snowfalls over Korea: A case study for the winter of 2009–2010. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D23122, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD014794.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, T.-W., C.-H. Ho, and S. Yang, 2011: Relationship between the Arctic Oscillation and cold surges over East Asia. J. Climate, 24, 6883, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3529.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parthasarathy, B., and S. Yang, 1995: Relationships between regional Indian summer monsoon rainfall and Eurasian snow cover. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 12, 143150, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02656828.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sampe, T., and S.-P. Xie, 2010: Large-scale dynamics of the meiyu–baiu rainband: Environmental forcing by the westerly jet. J. Climate, 23, 113134, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI3128.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Si, D., and Y. Ding, 2013: Decadal change in the correlation pattern between the Tibetan Plateau winter snow and the East Asian summer precipitation during 1979–2011. J. Climate, 26, 76227634, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00587.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun, C., S. Yang, W. Li, R. Zhang, and R. Wu, 2016: Interannual variations of the dominant modes of East Asian winter monsoon and possible links to Arctic sea ice. Climate Dyn., 47, 481496, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2851-3.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tao, S. Y., and L. X. Chen, 1987: A review of recent research on the East Asian summer monsoon in China. Monsoon Meteorology, C. P. Chang and T. N. Krishnamurti, Eds., Oxford University Press, 60–92.

  • Turner, A. G., and J. M. Slingo, 2011: Using idealized snow forcing to test teleconnections with the Indian summer monsoon in the Hadley Centre GCM. Climate Dyn., 36, 17171735, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0805-3.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vernekar, A. D., J. Zhou, and J. Shukla, 1995: The effect of Eurasian snow cover on the Indian monsoon. J. Climate, 8, 248266, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1995)008<0248:TEOESC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., R. Wu, and X. Fu, 2000: Pacific–East Asian teleconnection: How does ENSO affect East Asian climate? J. Climate, 13, 15171536, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<1517:PEATHD>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., Z. Wu, J. Liu, C.-P. Chang, J. Li, and T.-J. Zhou, 2010: Another look at interannual-to-interdecadal variations of the East Asian winter monsoon: The northern and southern temperature modes. J. Climate, 23, 14951512, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI3243.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, L., and R. G. Wu, 2012: In-phase transition from the winter monsoon to the summer monsoon over East Asia: Role of the Indian Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D11112, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD017509.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, L., R. Huang, L. Gu, W. Chen, and L. Kang, 2009: Interdecadal variations of the East Asian winter monsoon and their association with quasi-stationary planetary wave activity. J. Climate, 22, 48604872, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2973.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Z., R. Wu, S. Chen, G. Huang, G. Liu, and L. Zhu, 2018: Influence of western Tibetan Plateau summer snow cover on East Asian summer rainfall. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 123, 23712385, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JD028016.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watanabe, M., and T. Nitta, 1998: Relative impacts of snow and sea surface temperature anomalies on an extreme phase in the winter atmospheric circulation. J. Climate, 11, 28372857, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<2837:RIOSAS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wen, M., S. Yang, A. Kumar, and P. Zhang, 2009: An analysis of the large-scale climate anomalies associated with the snowstorms affecting China in January 2008. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 11111131, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008MWR2638.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, B., and J. Wang, 2002: Possible impacts of winter Arctic Oscillation on Siberian high, the East Asian winter monsoon and sea-ice extent. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 19, 297320, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-002-0024-x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, Z., J. Li, Z. Jiang, and T. Ma, 2012: Modulation of the Tibetan Plateau snow cover on the ENSO teleconnections: From the East Asian summer monsoon perspective. J. Climate, 25, 24812489, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00135.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xiao, Z., and A. Duan, 2016: Impacts of Tibetan Plateau snow cover on the interannual variability of the East Asian summer monsoon. J. Climate, 29, 84958514, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0029.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, S., and L. Xu, 1994: Linkage between Eurasian winter snow cover and regional Chinese summer rainfall. Int. J. Climatol., 14, 739750, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3370140704.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, S., and K.-M. Lau, 1998: Influences of sea surface temperature and ground wetness on Asian summer monsoon. J. Climate, 11, 32303246, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<3230:IOSSTA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, S., K.-M. Lau, and K.-M. Kim, 2002: Variations of the East Asian jet stream and Asian–Pacific–American winter climate anomalies. J. Climate, 15, 306325, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<0306:VOTEAJ>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yasunari, T., A. Kitoh, and T. Tokioka, 1991: Local and remote responses to excessive snow mass over Eurasia appearing in the northern spring and summer climate—A study with MRI GCM. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 69, 473487, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj1965.69.4_473.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yim, S.-Y., J.-G. Jhun, R. Lu, and B. Wang, 2010: Two distinct patterns of spring Eurasian snow cover anomaly and their impacts on the East Asian summer monsoon. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D22113, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD013996.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, R. N., R. Zhang, and Z. Zuo, 2017: Impact of Eurasian spring snow decrement on East Asian summer precipitation. J. Climate, 30, 34213437, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0214.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, T., T. Wang, G. Krinner, X. Wang, T. Gasser, S. Peng, S. Piao, and T. Yao, 2019: The weakening relationship between Eurasian spring snow cover and Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Sci. Adv., 5, eaau8932, https://doi.org/10.1126/SCIADV.AAU8932.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, Y., K. R. Sperber, and J. S. Boyle, 1997: Climatology and interannual variation of East Asian winter monsoon: Result from the 1979–95 NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 26052619, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<2605:CAIVOT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, B. Z., and Coauthors, 2011: The great 2008 Chinese ice storm: Its socioeconomic–ecological impact and sustainability lessons learned. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92, 4760, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010BAMS2857.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 150 150 33
Full Text Views 23 23 8
PDF Downloads 38 38 13

A Bridging Role of Winter Snow over Northern China and Southern Mongolia in Linking the East Asian Winter and Summer Monsoons

View More View Less
  • 1 School of Atmospheric Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China, and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • 2 Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • 3 School of Atmospheric Sciences, and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Climate Change and Natural Disaster Studies, and Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), Guangdong, China
  • 4 Institute of Environment, Energy and Sustainability, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
  • 5 School of Atmospheric Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Eurasian snow, one of the most important factors that influence the Asian monsoons, has long been viewed as a useful predictor for seasonal monsoon prediction. In this study, observations and model simulations are used to demonstrate a bridging role of the winter snow anomaly over northern China and southern Mongolia (NCSM) in the relationship between the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). Enhanced snow in NCSM results in local surface and tropospheric cooling, strengthening the EAWM through cold-air intrusion induced by northerly wind anomalies. In turn, the stronger EAWM provides a favorable condition for enhanced snowfall over East Asia to the south, indicating an active snow–EAWM interaction. The continental cooling could be maintained until summer due to the memory effect of snowmelt and moistening as well as the snow–monsoon interaction in the spring, causing changes in the meridional temperature gradient and associated upper-level westerlies in the summer. The interaction between the strengthened westerlies over the northern Tibetan Plateau and the topography of the plateau could lead to anomalous downstream convergence and compensating divergence to the south. Therefore, anomalous cyclonic circulation and increased rainfall occur over northeastern China and the Korean Peninsula, but anticyclonic circulation and decreased rainfall appear over the subtropical East Asia–Pacific region. Moreover, limited analysis shows that, compared to sea surface temperature feedback, the direct impact of snow anomaly on the EAWM–EASM connection seems more important.

Denotes content that is immediately available upon publication as open access.

Corresponding author: Mengmeng Lu, lumm3@mail2.sysu.edu.cn

Abstract

Eurasian snow, one of the most important factors that influence the Asian monsoons, has long been viewed as a useful predictor for seasonal monsoon prediction. In this study, observations and model simulations are used to demonstrate a bridging role of the winter snow anomaly over northern China and southern Mongolia (NCSM) in the relationship between the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). Enhanced snow in NCSM results in local surface and tropospheric cooling, strengthening the EAWM through cold-air intrusion induced by northerly wind anomalies. In turn, the stronger EAWM provides a favorable condition for enhanced snowfall over East Asia to the south, indicating an active snow–EAWM interaction. The continental cooling could be maintained until summer due to the memory effect of snowmelt and moistening as well as the snow–monsoon interaction in the spring, causing changes in the meridional temperature gradient and associated upper-level westerlies in the summer. The interaction between the strengthened westerlies over the northern Tibetan Plateau and the topography of the plateau could lead to anomalous downstream convergence and compensating divergence to the south. Therefore, anomalous cyclonic circulation and increased rainfall occur over northeastern China and the Korean Peninsula, but anticyclonic circulation and decreased rainfall appear over the subtropical East Asia–Pacific region. Moreover, limited analysis shows that, compared to sea surface temperature feedback, the direct impact of snow anomaly on the EAWM–EASM connection seems more important.

Denotes content that is immediately available upon publication as open access.

Corresponding author: Mengmeng Lu, lumm3@mail2.sysu.edu.cn
Save